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Full text of "The house servant's directory, or, A monitor for private families: comprising hints on the arrangement and performance of servants' work ... and upwards of 100 various and useful receipts, chiefly compiled for the use of house servants .."


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Book .lf<^4 - 



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THE ^^■^'' 

KOVSE SERVAWT'S DZRBCTORY. 

OR 

A MONITOR FOR PRIVATE FAMILIES : 

COMPRISING 

HINTS ON THE ARRANGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF 
SXSB.VA97TS' WdXlK, 

WITH GENERAL RULES FOR 

SETTING OUT TABLES AND SIDEBOARDS 

IN FIRST order; 

THE ART OF VTAITIZTG 

nr ALL ITS branches; and likewise how to conduct 

LARGE AND SMALL PARTIES 

WITH order; 

WITH GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING ON TABLE 

ALL KINDS OF JOINTS, FISH, FOWL, &c. 

WITH 

FULL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING 

PLATE, BRASS, STEEL, GLASS, MAHOGANY j 

AND LIKEWISE 

ALL KINDS OF PATENT AND COMMON LAMPS: 
OB3ERVA7IO m^ 

ON SERVANTS' BEHAVIOUR TO THEIR EMPLOYERS; 

AND UPWARDS OF 

XOO VARIOUS ikSrs USEFXTIi RBCEIFTSy 

CHIEFLY COMPILED 

FOR THE USE OF HOUSE SERVANTS; 

AND IDENTICALLY MADE 

TO SUIT THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF FAMILIES 

IN THE UNITED STATES, 

By ROBERT ROBERTS. 



rS. 3 HIT SI. 7 ABVICH TO COOKS 

AND HEADS OF FAMILIES; 
AND COMPLETE DIRECTIONS HOW TO BURN 



BOSTON, 

MUNROE AND FRANCIS, 128 WASHINGTON-STRBBT, 

NEW YORK, 

CHARLES S. FRANCIS, 252 BROADWAT. 

1828. 



Second Edition. 



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DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS, TO WIT : 

District Clerk's Office. 

Be it remembered, that on the ninth day of March, A. D. 1837, 
in the fifty-first year of the Independence of the United States of 
America, Munroe &, Francis, of the said district, have deposited in 
this Office, the Title of a Book, the right whereof they claim as Pro 
prietors, in the words following, to wit : 

The HOUSE SERVANT'S DIRECTORY, or a Monitor for 
Private Families : comprising hints on the arrangement and perform- 
ance of Servants' Work, with general rules for setting out Tables and 
Sideboards in first order. The art of Wailing in all its branches; and 
likewise how to conduct Large and Small Parties with order; with 

feneral directions for placing on Table all kinds of Joints, Fish, 
'owl, &c. ; with full instructions for cleaning Plate, Brass, Steel, 
Glass, Mahogan}'; and likewise, all kinds of Patent and Common 
Lamps: Observations on Servants' Behaviour to their Employers; 
and upwards of 100 various and useful Receipts, chiefly compiled for 
the use of House Servants, and identically made to suit the Manners 
and Customs of Families in the United States. By Robert Roberts. 
With friendly Advice to Cooks and Heads of families, and complete 
Directions how to burn Lehigh Coal, 

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, enti- 
tled " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the 
copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of 
such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;" and also to an act 
entitled, " An act supplementary to an act entitled, an act for the 
eucouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and 
books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times 
therein mentioned ; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of 
designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 

JOHN W. DAVIS, Clerk of the District of Massachusetts, 



cfj-Q^Q'^i 



I 



ADVERTISEMENT OP THE PUBLISHERS. 



This valuable Work was written by a servant in 
one of the most respectable families in this city, the 
demise of whose very honourable head, with deep re- 
gret we have to record while penning this advertise- 
ment; and we hope it it will be some recommendation 
to this useful book, to give an extract of a letter 
which we received from the late Hon. Christopher 
Gore, a few weeks before his decease. 

" I have read the work attentively, and think it may 
he of much use. The directions are plain and perspic- 
uous ; and many of the recipes I have experienced to 
he valuable. Could servants he induced to conforrh to 
these directions, their own lives would he more useful^ 
and the comfort and convenience of families much pro- 
moted. Consider me as a subscriber for such number 
of copies as six dollars will pay for ; and I think that 
many more loould be subscribed for in Boston." 

Numerous other recommendations could have been 
procured, but this we deem sufficient. 

If the public have applauded Dr. Kitchener for im- 
proving the minutiae and economy of the larder, what 
praise is not due to an humble attempt to amend the 
morals and awkwardness of domestics? In school-learn- 
ing generally our native servants surpass foreigners, but 
in manners, deportment, and a knowledge of the duties 
of^heir station, it must be admitted they are considerably 
inferiour. To borrow a phrase from the kitchen, our 
oboriginal servants need grilling ; they require much in- 
struction, and an apprenticeship to the art and faculty of 
unbending. Like certain "woollens imported in a raw 
state," noticed in a late congressional debate, it is requi- 
site, in order to giving them a proper gloss- and finish, to 
send them to a " brushing establishment." 



a wwarjipwiy, "SBasiVij. 



It cannot be denied that many of our servants, whilst 
perfectly vvillingto receive their wages, are either unwil- 
ling to submit to the powers that be, by fulfilling the du- 
ties for which such wages were stipulated, or, from gross 
ignorance of domestic concerns, are totally unfit for ser- 
vice. An attempt to amend these matters by one from 
among their own number deserves, and we hope will 
receive the approbation and patronage of all aggrieved, 
so far at least as presenting a copy of this work to every 
house servant. 

As to the Receipts for expurgating lamps, forks, and 
boots, compounding liquids, powders, &c. &:c. given in 
this book, although like the author of the Cook's Oracle 
we cannot say we have actually eafm each receipt, having 
neither the necessary dyspeptic qualifications of the os- 
trich, nor the gusto of the Esquimaux or Kamschadale, 
yet, being assured by the author that he has himself op- 
erated on all of them, and on hundreds of others not 
set down because not infallible, we believe they will be 
found of essential service, and accordingly recommend 
them, when needed, to notice and use. 

The publishers have in some sort amended the or- 
thography and punctuation ; otherwise the book is copi- 
ed from the author's notes " verbatim et literatim." 
No apology is necessary for thus presenting it, as the 
perceptions of some of its intended readers are a little 
obtuse, and it is requisite to give them line upon line, 
somewhat in the Dogberry style. Different views of 
the same object are taken, to enforce the fact more 
strongly on the recollection ; and our author, as a servant, 
speaks to the comprehension of his fellow servants, withr 
out more diffuseness than answers the intended purpose. 

In fine, this book is just such an one as has been long 
wanted, emanating from just the right quarter, and writ-. 
ten precisely as might be wished. With these few 
words of prologue we permit the author to speak for 
himself. 

Boston, March 1, 1827, 



INDEX. 



Introduction to the House Servant's Directory 

The benefit of early rising to servants 

On dress suitable for their work 

Cleaning boots and shoes - . . 

Cleaning knives and forks 

Directions for cleaning steel forks - 

Trimming and cleaning lamps 

Directions for cleaning plate 

Cleaning plate with dry plate powder 

Cleaning silver and plated articles 

Setting up the candles ... 

Cleaning polished steel grates 

Directions for cleaning mahogany furniture 

Hints on taking out stains from mahogany 

Brushing and folding gentlemen's clothes 

Brushing and cleaning gentlemen's hats 

Regulations for the pantry - 

Directions for cleaning tea trays - 

Washing and cleaning decanters - 

Trimming the cruet stand or casters 
To clean tea and coffee urns 
Mahogany dinner trays 

Remarks en the morning's work in winter 

Directions for setting out the breakfast table 

Regulations for the dinner table 

Laying the cloth, &c. ' - 

Setting out the dinn'-r table 

Setting out the sideboard - 

Setting out the side table - 

Dinner on the table 

Waiting on dinner 

The first course removed - 

Second course removed • 

Placing on the dessert 

Preparations for tea and coffee 

Carrj'ing round tea and coffee 

Observations on supper 

Observations on the supper table 

Pirections for extinguishing lamps, shutting up the 



inc. 66 



mSSSSiSSSmSfSt 



VI 

Page 

Address and behaviour to your employers - - 69 

Behaviour to your fellow servants - - - - 70 

Behaviour of servants at their meals - - - 74 

Hints to house servants on their dress - - - 76 

Remarks on answering the bells - - - - 78 

All the best receipts useful for servants to know - - 80 

1. To make the best liquid blacking for boots and shoes - ib. 

2. To make boots and shoes water proof - - - ib. 

3. Composition to clean furniture - - - - 81 

4. Furniture oil for Mahogany, most excellent - - ib. 

5. Italian varnish, most superb for furniture - - 82 

6. Italian polish to give furniture a brilliant lustre - ib. 

7. To take ink stains out of mahogany furniture - - 83 

8. An excellent wash for dirty tables, after a party - ib. 

9. To take the black off the bright bars of polished steel - 84 

10. To polish the bars of a polished steel grate - - ib. 

11. The best way to clean a polished steel grate - - 85 

12. For the black parts or inner hearth of a grate - ib. 

13. Another excellent black mixture for the same - 86 

14. A beautiful mixture to clean brass or copper - - ib. 

15. To give Britannia metal a brilliant polish - - ib. 

16. A beautiful polish for black grates - - - 87 

17. To make the best plate powder - - - ib. 

18. A most superb way to clean plate - - - 88 

19. Another way to make plate powder, by J. R. W. of London ib. 

20. To clean any kind of plated articles whatever - 89 

21. To clean japanned tea and coffee urns - - 90 

22. To preserve iron or steel from rust - - . - ib. 

23. To take rust off steel - - - - , ib. 

24. To blacken the front of stone chimney pieces - 91 

25. An excellent composition to blacken stove grates - ib. 

26. To clean mirrors or large looking glasses - - . 92 

27. To make a beautiful black varnish - - - , ib. 

28. To give silver a beautiful polish - - - > ' ib. 

29. An excellent mastick for mending China and glass 98 

30. A wash to revive old deeds or other writings - ib. 

31. An excellent wash to keep flies from pictures or furniture ib. 

32. To remove flies from rooms - - . - 94 

33. To render old pictures as fine as new - - ib. 

34. A varnish that suits all kinds of pictures and prints - ib. 
3,5. To take ink spots out of mahogfan^ ^ ■? ^ 93 



Vll 

Pose. 

36. A most delicious salad sauce, by J. R.W. - - 95 

37. A great secret toinix mustard, by H. B. London - ib. 

38. To extract oil from boards - - - - 96 

39. To colour any kind of liquor - - - ib. 

40. To make liquid currant jam of the first quality - 97 

41. A secret to remove all kind of spots on silk or cotton ib, 

42. To make all kinds of syrups of all kinds of flowers - ib. 

43. To make excellent currant jelly - - - 98 

44. A most delicious lemonade,to be made a day before wanted ib. 

45. Lemonade that has the appearance and flavour of jelly 99 

46. To make raspberrj' vinegar, most delicious - ib. 

47. To make the best wine vinegar in one hour - 100 

48. An excellent preparation for vinegar - - ib. 

49. A dry portalile vinegar, or vinaigre en poudre 101 

50. To turn good wine into vinegar in three hours - ib. 

51. To restore that same wine to its former taste - ib. 
62. To correct a bad taste or sourness in wine - - 102 

53. To preserve good wine unto the last - - ib-. 

54. To recover persons from intoxication - - ib. . 

65. To make raspberry,strawberry,cherry and all kind of waters ib. 

66. Lemonade water of a most delicious flavour - 103 

67. Another excellent lemonade, by R. R. - - ib. 

68. To whiten ivory that has been spoiled - - ib. 

69. A cooling cinnamon water in hot weather - - 104 

60. An excellent good ratifia, by F. N. - - - ib, 

61. A strong aniseed water . - . . 105 

62. To take off" spots of any sort, from any kind of cloth ib. 

63. A great secret against oil spots, &c. - - ib. 

64. To restore carpe'o to their first bloom - - 106 
€5. To restore tapestries to their former brightness - ib. 

66. To revive ihe colour of cloth - - - ib. 

67. To take spots out of white cloth, &c. - - 107. 

68. A composition of soap that will take out all sorts of spots ib. 

69. Turkish cement for joining all metals, glass, china, &c. 108 

70. To preserve the brightness of fire arms, &c. '- ib. 

71. To remove ink stains from cloth, plaid, silk, worsted,&c. ib. 

72. To preserve milk for sea that will keep for six months 109 

73. To preserve apples for the year round - - ib. 

74. To loosen stoppers that are congealed in decanters 110 
76. To take stains out of black cloth, silk, or crape - ib. 

76, To know whether a bed is damp or not, when travelling 110 



77. To make the best ginger beer 

78. To make excellent spruce beer 

79. To make a beautiful flavoured punch 

80. To cement any kind of broken glass 

81. A black varnish for straw or chip hats 

82. Blacking for harness that will not injure leather 

83. To make a strong paste for paper 

84. A water that gilds copper and bronze 

85. A wash for gold, silver, silk,or any other kind of embroidery 

86. To make iron as beautiful and white as silver 

87. To preserve furs or woollen clothes from moths 

88. To dye gloves so as to look like York tan 

89. To reform those who are given to drink 

90. To prevent the breath from smelling, after liquor 

91. A wash to give lustre to the face 

92. A wash for the hair, most superb 

93. Excellent paste for the skin 

94. A beautiful corn poultice 

95. To make the best corn plaster 

96. A safe liquid to turn red hair black - 

97. To refine cider for one barrel 

98. To clarify strong or table beer, or ale 

99. A cheap and wholesome beer - - 

100. Excellent jumble beer 

101. To make excellent ginger beer, for ten gallons 

102. A wash to give a brilliant lustre to plate 

103. Water-proof varnish of the first quality 

104. Chinese varnish for miniature painting 

105. To make a cement for bottles 
Directions for putting dishes on table 
Directions for placing all kinds of joints, fowls, fish, 
Directions for carving 
Going to market - - - 
How to choose poultry • - " 
How to choose fish - - " 
A few observations to cooks,' &c. 
A word to heads of families 
Directions to make a fire of Lehigh coal 
Miscellaneous observations ibr the use of housekeepers 
How to keep vegetables, meat, bread, &c. 
How to keep apples, sweet herbs, &c. 
To preserve blankets from moths 



Page. 

Ill 

ib. 

ib. 

112 

ib. 

ib. 

113 

ib. 

ib. 

114 

ib. 

ib. 

115 

ib. 

ib. 

116 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

117 

ib, 

ib. 

ib. 

118 

ib. 

ib. 

119 

ib. 

ib. 

120 

&c. on table 121 

122 



130 
135 
137 
138 
154 
169 
173 
ib. 
174 
174, 179 



xia-TiLO]>YrcTioir. 



In the first place, T shall address myself to mj 
young friends Joseph and David, as they are now 
about entering into gentlemen's service, which they 
will find in course of time a very critical station 
for them to fulfil in its proper order; therefore I 
most sincerely intreat them to practise and study 
these few directions and observations, which I have 
laid down in the following pages, for their benefit 
and instruction, likewise for the benefit of those 
families whom they may have the honour to serve. 
~ Besides there are many young men who are in 
good situations at present, but who oftentimes are 
deficient of several of those branches that are 
requisite for a perfect servant to understand; I 
therefore have a sincere wish to serve all those who 
are in that capacity of earning an honest living, and 
perhaps are not perfect in the several branches of 
their business, which in this station they are expect- 
ed to perform without being ordered by the lady 
of the family. There are many young men who 
live out in families, who, I am sorry to say, do not 
know how to begin their work in proper order un> 
less being drove by the lady of the family, from 
one thing to another, which keeps them continually 
in a bustle and their work is never done. 

There is no servant that can keep from being in 

a state of confusion, that has not a regular rule for 

his work, and, on the other hand, how disagreeable 

it must be for the lady, who has to tell them every 

2 



thing that she wants to be done. It was merely 
for this idea, that the author of this took in hand 
to laj before the public those general rules and 
directions for servants to go by as shall give satis- 
faction to their employers, and gain a good repu- 
tation for themselves. And it is my most earnest 
wish to give to the utmost extent of my power, 
every instruction that it requisite for a house 
servant to understand. 

Now, my young friends, you must consider that 
to live in a gentleman's family as a house servant is 
a station that will seem wholly different from any 
thing, I presume, that ever you have been acquaint- 
ed with; this station of life comprises comforts, 
privileges, and pleasures, which are to be found in 
but few other stations in which you may enter; 
and on the other hand, many difficulties, trials of 
temper, &c., more perhaps than in any other sta- 
tion in which you might enter, in a different state 
of life. Therefore, my young friends, when you 
hire yourself to a lady or gentleman, your time or 
your ability is no longer your own, but your em- 
ployer's : therefore they have a claim on them 
whenever they choose to call for them: and my 
sincere advice to you is, always to study to give 
general satisfaction to your employers, and by so 
doing you are sure to gain credit for yourself. 

Now, Joseph, I am going to make a few obser- 
vations to you. — In the first place, my young friend, 
the various stations of life are appointed by that 
Supreme Being, who is the giver of all goodness ; 
therefore every station that he allows us to fulfil, 
is useful and honourable in their different degrees : 
for instance, we find from history and' holy writ, 
that domestic servants have frequently been intrust- 



ed with matters of the greatest importance to their 
employers. Of this we have a memorable instance 
of 3'^our namesake Joseph, who was sold by his 
brethren to the Ishmaelites, and bought by Poti- 
phar to be his domestic servant, and in this capa- 
city Joseph acquitted himself with honesty and in- 
tegrity, and his master saw that the Lord was with 
him, and that the Lord prospered all that was 
about him; and the Lord blessed the Egyptian's 
house for Joseph's sake. And he left all that he 
had in Joseph's care, and he knew not aught he 
had, save the bread that he did eat. — Genesis, 
chapter 39th. I might mention in another instance, 
the fidelity of Mordecai, who, in his capacity as a 
porter to King Ahasuerus, saved that monarch 
from the violent hands of his two chamberlains. 

Happy,my3'oung friends, are those families that 
have servants who study the comfort and welfare 
of their employers, and who in return do the same 
by them ! The kind admonitions of a good and af- 
fectionate mistress or master should always be lis- 
tened to with respect and obedience, for the wise 
man saith, "As an ear-ring of gold, so is a wise re- 
proof upon an obedient ear." — Proverbs xxiv. 12. 
In the next place, my young friends, you may per- 
haps find a mar^ter or mistress vi'ho may act un- 
kindly and unjustly towards you, as Laban did to 
Jacob his servant and son-in-law ; but if you do 
your duty honestly and faithfully, depend on it that 
you will be more happy in your integrity than your 
employers can be in their injustice; for it is much 
better to be oppressed than to stand in the place 
of the oppressor ; for patience is very acceptable 
in the sight of God, and in due time will be reward- 
ed, because God hath promised that it shall be so; 



and when have his promises failed ? Jacob's master 
shifted and shuffled him about for twenty years 5 
and changed his wages ten different times, yet the 
Lord blessed the honest and upright servant, be- 
cause he had done that which was just, between 
his master and himself. Let those considerations, 
my young friends, ever stimulate your minds to 
truth and faithfulness, in all your situations through 
life, and God will guide and prosper you in all 
your undertakings. 

I know there are many temptations to lead 
young men to their ruin ; bul you should be very 
cautious of what company you keep. How many 
young men in our station of life have come to their 
ruin by keeping bad company, and neglecting the 
business of their employers; so, my young friends, 
I tell ye to beware of all bad habits, such as drink- 
ing, gambling, swearing, telling falsehoods, and 
ivasting your time when sent out on the business 
of your employers ; for this is not your time you 
spend, but your employer's, for all your time be- 
longs to them. 

Remember, my young friends, that your char-» 
acter is your whole fortune through life; therefore 
you must watch over it incessantly, to keep it from 
blemish or stain ; for without character it is useless 
lo seek after any respectable service whatever. 
Nor can 1 wonder at ladies and gentlemen for the 
minute inquiries that they make, in every point, of 
a stranger's character. How many instances have 
we all heard of masters being robbed by dishonest 
servants, and their very existence exposed to immi- 
nent danger through evil connexions being formed, 
unknown to them, by the inmates of their house. 
Remember also, that if you keep company with 



those whose character is not of the best, your char- 
acter will be censured as much in a manner as 
though you were as bad as themselves; for our 
good Saint Paul says, that evil communications 
corrupt good manners; — for the wicked favour the 
wicked, and the good favour the good ; neither 
flatter any body, nor suffer any one to flatter thee. 

There are a iew more things which I shall cau- 
tion you against. Remember always to govern 
thy tongue and passions, when thou art angry with 
any person; for anger will hurt you more than in- 
jury ; and my kind advice to you is, never to be a 
slave to passion. JBesides, the law of nature for- 
bids us to do injury to one another; God hath giv- 
en nothing to man which can be compared to rea- 
son and wisdom. Always strive to relieve those who 
are in distress, if it is in your power, for the chris- 
tian religion not only commands us to help our 
friends, but to relieve our greatest enemies; for so 
we shall make them our friends ; and shall pro- 
mote love, and kindness, peace and good will among 
men. It concerns all men to help the miserable. 
It is the property of a little mind to flatter the rich ; 
for flattery can hurt nobody but whom it pleases. 
The desire of riches, glory, and pleasure, are dis- 
eases of the mind ; but the power of honesty is so 
great, that we should love it even in our greatest 
enemy. Virtue procures and preserves friendship, 
but vice produceth hatred and quarrels. 

Now, my young friends, Joseph and David, I 
again for the last time most sincerely intreat you 
both to devote your attention to the following pages, 
in which I have laid down such rules and regula- 
tions for the convenience of your work, and the ful- 
filment of your several duties to your employers, 
2* 



as from my own long experience as a house servant 
in some of the first families in England, France, 
and America, will prove very beneficial to you and 
the public. Not that I mean to offer them as a fix- 
ed standard; because almost every family differs 
in the execution of their domestic affairs, and it is 
the duty of a good servant to do things in that way 
that his employers like best. But my idea of pub- 
lishing this was for a general guide, and to afford 
an insight into matters connected with gentle- 
men's families; and I have always found those ar- 
rangements, which 1 have prescribed in the follow- 
ing pages, very satisfactorj' to those ladies and gen- 
tlemen whom I have had the honour to serve. 
But it is true, I have had many difficulties and trials 
of temper to encounter; but I have always viewed 
them as appointed by that Supreme Being whose 
goodness is ever bestowed upon those who bear 
every trial and difficulty with patience and obedi- 
ence. 

My young friends, I hope you will pardon me 
for dwelling so long on these subjects ; but many, 
very many, have I known whose prospects in 
early life, and all their enjoyments, have been blast- 
ed by not attending to good advice. How many 
have we seen going about the city, like vagabonds, 
diseased in mind and body, and mere outcasts' 
from all respectable society^ and a burthen to them- 
selves, therefore I sincerely wish that my young 
friends may fulfil their several duties with honesty, 
integrity, and due respect to their employers and fel- 
low servants in general ; and I shall now conclude 
my general exhortations for your welfare,and enter 
on the particular statements respecting your do- 
mestic duties, &c. 



HOUSE SERVAJVT'S 
DIRECTORY, &c, 



THE BENEFIT OF EARLY RISING TO 
SERVANTS. 

In order to get through your work in proper 
time, you should make it your chief study to rise 
early in the morning ; for an hour before the fam- 
ily rises is worth more to you than two after they 
are up ; for in this time you can get through the 
dirtiest part of the work, which you cannot well do 
after the family rises ; for then you always are lia- 
ble to interruption ; therefore by havinig the dirtiest 
part of your work executed, it will prove a very 
great comfort to you. As there is nothing more 
disagreeable than to run about with dirty hands and 
dirty clothes; and this must inevitably be the case 
if you defer this part of your work untill every 
body is stirring and bustling about. 

In the next place, you must have a proper dress 
for doing your dirty work in ; for you should never 
attempt to wait on the family in the clothes that you 
clean your boots, shoes, knives, and lamps in ; for 
the dress that you wear to do this part of your 
work is not iit to wait in, on ladies and gentlemen. 



16 

There is no class of people to whom cleanliness 
of person and attire is of more importance than to 
servants in genteel families. There are many ser- 
vants, whom I have been eye witness to, through 
negligence as I must call it, who are a disgrace to 
the family that they live with, as well as to them- 
selves, by appearing in their dirty clothes at a time 
of day that they should have all the dirtiest part of 
their work done. Every man that lives in this ca- 
pacity should have a sufficient quantity of clothes 
to appear aUvaj'^s neat and respectable ; both for 
his own credit, and for the credit of the family he 
serves ; therefore I shall give you a few hints on 
what clothes are suitable for his different work. In 
the first place for doing your dirty work, you 
should have you a round-a-bout jacket of a dark 
colour, with overalls, or loose trowsers, of the same 
colour, with a vest, and a cap of some description to 
keep the dust from your hair, with a green baize 
apron. This is a very suitable habiliment for your 
morning's work, that is, before the family come 
down to breakfast ; at which time you should have 
on a clean shirt collar and cravat, with a clean 
round jacket, white linen apron and clean shoes, 
with your hair neatly combed out. This is a most 
neat and clean attire for serving breakfasts. You 
must always make your calculations what time it 
may take to get through your v/ork, so as to clean 
yourself for breakfast. 

In the next place, I shall give you some direc- 
tions on your dress for dinner. You should make 
it a general rule always to have a good suit of 
clothes or two, for attending at dinner, as a servant 
should always at this time look neat and tidy, but 
not foppish ; what I mean by being foppish is, to 



17 

wear a great bunch of seals to your watch, and a 
great pin sticking out of your bosom. There is 
nothing looks more ridiculous than to see a ser- 
vant puff out above bis ability ; it really pu\s me 
in mind of the fable of tlie frog and the ox ; there 
are many, I know, who never think of lading by a 
little sum of money against the time of need, but 
spend it all, as fast as they earn it, on fine dress. 
I never find fault with a man for dressing neat 
and plain ;. but to go beyond extremes is ridicu- 
lous; you should always have a good suit for din- 
ner, and I shall here give you a few hints on a 
suit which is very genteel and becoming. For the 
winter season you should have comfortable cloth- 
ing, such as a good superfine blue body coat, blue 
cassimere trowsers, and a yellow cassimere vest. 
This is a very neat and becoming dress to wait on 
dinner. You should have at least two or three 
suits of light clothes for the summer season ; as 
they require to be changed once or twice per 
week, if they are light coloured ; but black bom- 
bazine is preferable. 



CLEANING BOOTS AND SHOES. 

As these things are often wanted in a hurry, 
therefore you should always have them in readi- 
ness, if possible. In this operation, you should al- 
ways have good brushes and good blacking. These 
are implements that are indispensably necessary ; 
without which, no credit will be given to the opera- 
tor. In the first place you must remove all the dirt 
from your boots or shoes, with your hard brush. 



18 

When perfectly clean you must stir upyour black- 
ing with a stick, then apply a little on your black 
brush, and apply it lightly and smoothly over your 
boots or- shoes, then apply your polishing brush 
quick and lightly over them, and in a few minutes 
you will have a beautiful polish. Should any brown 
spots appear, which often do, by not putting on 
the blacking'even, then apply your blacking brush 
lightly over it a second time, and by this process 
you will have a beautiful polish. 

When you have ladies' shoes to clean, be very 
clean and careful about them. As the linings are 
generally white, you must have clean hands, as 
the lining is apt to get soiled ; some of these shoes 
are cleaned with milk, or the whites of eggs, such 
as Morocco, or any kind of glazed leather what- 
ever. You must apply the mixture with a sponge, 
and lay them before the fire or in the sun to dry ; 
then take a soft brush, or a silk handkerchief ; 
this will give them a fine polish. 

You will find it necessarj'', once in a while, to 
grease gentlemen's boots and shoes, especially in 
winter time, as the leather is apt to crack with the 
wet and cold. You will find, by referring to the 
Index, full directions for rendering boots and shoes 
perfectly water proof. I therefore proceed to the 
next branch of work that is requisite to get out of 
the way as early in the morning as possible. 



CLEANING KNIVES. 

This is another branch of work that requires the 
greatest care and attention, as your best knives 



19 

generally have to bear the inspection of a numbef 
of tasteful eyes during the course of dinner. Eve- 
ry servant should see that he has proper utensils 
to do his work with, as you cannot expect to do 
your work in proper order, if you have not the 
means to acconaplish it with. How manj^ good 
things are spoilt through bad management of the 
man, and the want of convenient tools to work 
with. Now, in order to clean knives and forks 
well, you must get you a soft pine plank or board : 
let it be free from knots, and about six feet long ; 
have feet or standers under it, so as to raise it ex- 
actly to the height of j^our hips, as this is the pro- 
portion for you to bear a regular pressure on 
your knives ; then have you a good soft Bristol 
brick, and rub it a few times up and down your 
board, then take a knife in each hand and stand 
opposite the centre of the board, with the backs 
of the knives towards the palms of your hands, 
then expand your arms, keeping the blades level 
on the board, with a quick motion draw your 
hands to and from you, frequently looking at the 
side you are scouring, to see when clean. Do 
not lean too heavy on the blades for fear of break- 
ing them, in this mode you will soon grow tracta- 
ble, and will shortly be able to clean two dozen 
where you would only clean one dozen by taking 
one knife at a time, and scouring it with your one 
hand. A good set of knives is a valuable thing, 
and soon spoiled if not properly taken care of by 
the man who has the charge of them. There is 
no branch of a servant's business that will gain 
more credit for him, from ladies of taste, than 
keeping his knives and forks in primo bono; as 
they have many spectators. 



20 



DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING STEEL FORKS. 

The best method of cleaning steel forks, is to 
have a deep box or a small keg, the latter is pre- 
ferable ; fill it with fine sand and chopped hay or 
Straw, either will answer the purpose. To do this 
perfectly, put some of your hay into the bottom of 
your keg, then put in some sand, and so on, until 
it is quite full, then press it close down, and wet it 
with water, to keep it damp, as it will have more 
effect in taking the black from off the prongs, as 
forks often are very black and hard to clean, af- 
ter having been used in acids, &c. 

When you clean them, take two in each hand, 
and stab them several times in the sand, and so 
on, until you have them all done ; then have an 
old hard brush for the purpose of brushing the 
sand from between the prongs ; likewise have a 
piece of buckskin, or an old glove, to polish them 
off with. This is the true and best method of 
cleaning steel forks. 

Now 1 shall give you directions for cleaning the 
handles of your knives and forks, after the blades 
and prongs have all been cleaned. In the first 
place take a towel and immerse it in water, then 
wring it out all but dry ; hold this towel in your 
right hand, with a dry knife towel in the left, to 
wipe the blade. When you have them all done, 
then give them a light rub over with a dry towel, 
including handles, &c. Should you have silver 
knives, you may clean them with a little gin and 
whiting mixed together, and rubbed over the han- 
dles when dry ; if the handles be fluted, you must 



21 

brush them with your plate brush, and polish with 
your shamois,or,as it is pronounced,shammy leather. 
My young friend, 1 have always been thus par- 
ticular about my knives and forks, because they 
are things that, from the appearance of which, not 
only the lady and gentleman of the familj' but ev- 
ery onethat sits down at table, forms an opinion of 
the cleanliness and good management of the ser- 
vant to whose care they are intrusted ; and I sin- 
cerely wish thatyou may gain the same approbation. 



TRIMMING AND CLEANING LAMPS. 

Lamps are now so much in use for drawing- 
rooms, dining-rooms, and entries, that it is a very 
important part of a servant's work to keep them in 
perfect order, so as to show good light. I have 
been in some houses where the rooms Were almost 
filled with smoke and stench of the oil, and the 
glasses of the lamps clouded with dust and smoke, 
from the cottons being uneven, or up too high ; 
this is a very disagreeable thin^ indeed. But it is 
not always a servant's fault, for, unless there is 
good oil, and plenty of it allowed to the man, it is 
impossible for them to burn well. But it is a man's 
fault if they are dirty, or not in good order : and 
to remedy this disaster, when you first hire with, 
a family, let it be your first object to examine all 
your lamps and see that they are all in order ; and 
if not, let your employers know immediately, that 
is, if they are so bad that you cannot remedy them 
yourself, in which case they should be taken to 
some mechanist to be put in good order immediately. 
3 



22 

When you have them in perfect order, by a little 
care and attention you can have very little trouble 
with them aftervvards, in giving them a proper and 
thorough cleaning, which you should do at least 
once a fortnight. When you do this, take two or 
three quarts of soft boiling water, put into it two or 
three teaspoonsfuU of pearl ashes, then empty 
your lamps, and take them all to pieces, observing 
where each particle belongs, that you may have 
no trouble in putting them together again. When 
you have them apart, first fill the cistern, that part 
which holds the oil, with this boiling water, and 
then shake it well ; don't empty it into the rest of 
your water, for it will make it dirty. After this, 
if there should be any gum about them, scrape it 
off with an old knife, then put it into the tub which 
contains the rest of your water, and wash it well 
with a piece of old linen, which you must have for 
that purpose, with all the other parts likewise. 
When you have this all done, wipe them dry and 
put them before the fire or in the sun to dry ; and 
when you have put them together, give them a 
good polish with a fine cloth or silk handkerchief. 

You should wash your lamp glasses every 
morning, when you are washing your glass or 
breakfast things, and put them by in their proper 
place until they are wanted. 

You should always have a clean towel when you 
are lighting your lamps, in order to dust your 
lamp glasses before you put them on, as they will 
show much better light. 

When you are cleaning or trimming your lamps 
in the morning, you should be very particular in 
emptying the dripper, or that part of the lamp that 
holds the droppings ; for if this part is not kept 



23 

clean to admit the air, the lamp will never burn 
well. You must likewise keep your lamp wicks in 
a dry place, this you may do by having a drawer, 
which you may keep for this purpose. When you 
put on fresh cottons, you must be very careful to 
put them on the thimble quite even. And likewise 
see that they fit exactly, or the cotton will slip 
from ofFthe thimble when you go to raise it. You 
should never cut your cottons with scissors ; it is 
much the best way to let down your oil, and light 
the cotton ; when it burns a little so as to be even, 
blow it out, and rub off the snufF with a piece of 
paper even with the burner or socket, which con- 
tains the wick. You should always use wax ta- 
pers for lighting lamps, as paper generally flies 
about and makes dirt. 



DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING PLATE. 

This is another part of a house servant's work, 
which requires particular care, and the greatest 
attention. Many are the waj^s that are practised 
in cleaning 'u, by diflferent servants, every one 
thinks his own way the best, and many times the 
plate is injured, by different servants, trying differ- 
ent experiments on it ; but 1 shall give you, in the 
index of this book, two of the best recipes for 
making plate powder, that is used by one of the 
best silversmiths in London. Before you clean 
your plate with this powder, you must wash it 
well in a quantity of hot suds, that there be no 
grease left on it, for you never can clean plate in 



24 

a proper manner if it is greasy. You may use eith- 
er of these plate powders wet or dry. If your plate 
be very dirty I should recommend it wet. To 
mix it wet, take some of your powder and wet it 
■with spirits of wine to the consistency of cream, 
then take a piece of fine soft sponge that is free 
from grit or dirt of any kind whatever, dip it in 
this mixture, then squeeze it a little so as you will 
not waste it, then apply it quick and even all over 
your plate : do not rub over too much at a time, 
as it ought to be polished before it gets too dry. 

To polish your plate, you should have some soft 
linen rags or cloths to rub off the mixture, and 
then polish them off with your shammy leather. 
When 3'ou have dishes, salvers, salts, and other 
articles that are ornamented, that is, etched and 
beaded in rough ornamental work, you must have 
three good plate brushes ; one must be hard as a 
tooth brush, and another something softer, and the 
third quite soft. The hard brush is for the rough 
■work, and you must recollect never to brush any 
silver that is plain, with the hard brush, as you 
are sure to scratch it ; the soft brushes are for the 
handles of your silver knives and forks, which 
generally want brushing. 



CLEANING PLATE WITH DRY PLATE 
POWDER. 

This gives plate a most brilliant lustre, if it is 
only well done ; and should be rubbed on with 
your naked hand, such as spoons, forks, and des- 



25 

sert knives that have silver blades. Tlscse small 
articles are cleaned by taking some of the powder 
between your finger and thumb, and the longer 
you rub, the better it will look ; any article of 
your plate that is ornamented, this part may be 
rubbed with a piece of leather dipped in the plate 
powder, and rubbed quick and hard ; then it 
should be brushed with your plate brushes, as in 
the other directions, and polished off with your 
shammy or wash leather; and I will warrant your 
plate to look beautiful. 

In the next place you must remember to keep 
your plate in a dry place, for if you let any arti- 
cles that are only plated, lay about dirty, or in a 
damp place, they are sure to rust if plated on steel ; 
and if plated on copper, they are sure to canker 3 
therefore you should be particular, and not leave 
salt or acids of any kind on plated ware, as it is 
sure to take off the plate, and leave a stain, and 
by rubbing this stain, the plate will rub off; by 
•which means the article is perfectly spoiled. I 
very well know that there are many articles of this 
kind, that are often spoiled through the neglect of 
servants, and especially young hands, that hare 
had no experience of those things ; therefore, my 
young friends, I have here given you such direc- 
tions as I trust will enable you to keep your plate 
in such order as may give general satisfaction to 
your employers, and gain credit for yourselves. 

1 shall point out to you the next part of your 
work, in the following pages. 



CLEANING SILVER AND PLATED CAN- 
DLESTICKS. 

This is another branch of a house servant's bus- 
iness, which should command the greatest attention 
and neatness ; as there is nothing that adds more 
to the reputation of a servant than to see his can- 
dlesticks and candles kept in good order. When 
you are about to clean your silver or plated candle- 
sticks, j'-ou should be very careful that you do not 
scratch them, therefore the best method of clean- 
ing them is to take some good hot and strong soap 
suds, have a piece of soft flannel, and immerse it 
in the water or suds, as hot as you can bear your 
hand in it; wash your candlesticks one at a time, 
taking great care not to wet the green baize, which 
is generally rosined to the foot of the candlesticks. 
When washed clean, have some soft towels for that 
purpose, and wipe them as quick as you wash 
them ; when you have them all finished, take your 
shammy leather, with a little whiting dusted over 
them with your little muslin bag, which you must 
have filled with whiting, for this or other purposes. 

When your candlesticks are most sublimely fin- 
ished, then you must see to your candles. You 
should be very particular to keep your candles in 
a clean cool place, as there is nothing that looks 
worse, than candles taken into the parlour, when 
all over dust or smut. Be careful when putting up 
your candles into the candlesticks, that you do not 
break them. If they are too large for the sockets, 
scrape them down very neat and even, so as to fit ; 
and should they be too small, take some paper, 



27 

double it and let it be about an inch wide, wrap 
this around the end of your candle, so as to fit the 
socket, but don't let any of the paper appear 
above the candlestick. 



DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING UP THE 
CANDLES. 

You should always make it a regular rule to set 
up your candles in the morning, and particularly 
your chamber candlesticks, as Ihey are often call- 
ed for in the course of the da}', to seal letters, &c. 
The others should likewise be put up, and in order, 
for suppose they are called for in a hurry, and at 
a time when you cannot find leisure to get your 
candles and set them up? besides, when you are 
in a hurry and bustle, you are very apt to break 
them, and this causes great delay, and it looks 
very bad to see the company^ waiting so long, af- 
ter they have been ordered, and it likewise puts 
yourself into a state of confusion, &c. Should 
you have wax candles for use, be careful and have 
your hands clean, or you will soil them. Before 
you set them up in candlesticks, you should rub 
them with a piece of soft paper, and dip the tops of 
the wick in spirits of wine ; this will make them 
easy to light. 

There are some servants that light the candles 
before they put them up ; but I do not approve of 
this plan, for you cannot light them and blow them 
out again, without causing them to swale or drop 
down the sides, which makes them have a bad ap- 
pearance. You should have some wax tapers on 



28 

purpose to light your candles with, as paper makes 
a dirt and flies about the room ; besides it gene- 
rally sticks to the candle and causes it to burn 
dim. If you have branches around your drawing- 
room, and they are to be lit up when there is a 
party, you must trim your wax candles most sub- 
limely, with some white paper cut in the form of 
a rose, to go round the end of the candles, and fit 
neatly round the socket of the branch ; this looks 
very well at night. You should likewise have a 
piece of taper tied on the end of a piece of rattan, 
on purpose for lighting them, as it is very awk- 
ward to bring steps into the room. 



CLEANING POLISHED STEEL GRATES. 

These, and polished steel fire irons, are things 
that require great care and attention to keep them 
bright and free from rust ; I therefore shall give 
you some instructions how to keep them in good 
order. In the first place, if the bright bars are 
dirty and black, use the following mixture. 

Take half a pound of soft soap. Put it into one 
quart of soft water and boil it down to a pint, then 
take some emery and mix in a portion of this li- 
quid. Brush off all the soot and dirt from your 
grate, and take a piece of thick cloth and dip it 
into the mixture, then rub quick and hard, and in 
a few minutes you will get off all the black and 
dirt. After which take some crocus and wet 
it with N. E. rum, or gin, to the consistency of 
paint, with a piece of flannel dipped into it, and 
rub it quick and hard, until the bars, &;c. be- 



29 

come bright, then take some old pieces of linen or 
cotton, which you must have for this purpose, and 
rub all the mixture clean off. Then take a piece 
of leather and some dry rotten stone, and in a few 
minutes quick rubbing, you will have a beautiful 
polish. If your fire irons should happen to get 
rusty, as they often do in damp weather, and es- 
pecially when there is no fire in the room, rub 
them well over with a piece of flannel dipt in 
sweet oil, then shake over them some fresh slacked 
lime, and let them lay for twenty-four hours, or 
more if necessary, in this state, then take a piece 
of flannel and give them a good rubbing ; when 
the lime and oil is clean off, then use the crocus 
and gin as above directed, and polish off as the 
grate. This is a most sublime method of polishing 
and cleaning all polished steel articles, &c. 



DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING MAHOGANY 
FURNITURE. 

Another branch of a house servant's business is 
to attend to ckaning the tables, sideboards, mahog- 
any chairs, and the parlour doors, if mahogany ; 
likewise mahogany trays and any other article of 
mahogany that is in the parlour or drawing room. 
You should pay a great deal of attention to clean- 
ing furniture, to make it look well. If your fur- 
niture be of a dark colour, you should be very 
careful with what mixture you clean it 5 but you 
will find directions for light and dark, referred to 
in the Index. When you have cleaned off the dust 



30 

from your furniture, and when you put on your 
oil, or paste, put but little on at a time, rubbing it 
well in, with a piece of flannel. You must put it 
on very even, and rub very quick, and in a short 
time you will have a beautiful and brilliant polish. 
If you should use oil, you must rub as quick as 
you possibly can, taking care to rub with the grain 
of the wood, with a piece of flannel ; and when 
you have it well rubbed, take another piece of 
flannel and give it a good rubbing a second time, 
then polish off with some fine linen cloths or a silk 
handkerchief ; the latter is very good to give it a 
good gloss. If you clean your tables with bees- 
wax and spirits of turpentine mixed together, this 
is as good a thing as I could recommend ; it's a 
thing that requires but little rubbing, and is better 
for furniture than any other mixture now in use ; 
I shall therefore give you directions how to use 
this mixture. Take a piece of flannel and apply 
6ome of this mixture on it, then rub it quick and 
even all over your furniture, and in a short time 
you will have a most brilliant polish. Finish off 
with an old silk handkerchief. You will find di- 
rections for this receipt in the Index. 



HINTS ON TAKING OUT STAINS FROM 
MAHOGANY. 

There are some times that your tables will want 
washing; when there has been too much wax, 
oil, or paste put on, and not well rubbed off, the 
dust settles on it, and it is impossible for you to ^et 



31 

them to look well, if this is not washed off with the 
following wash ; — Take some warm beer, and a 
piece of flannel immersed into it ; with this, wash 
off your tables, and recollect to rub them quick and 
even ; after you have got your tables quite dry, 
then apply your mixture ; take pains and rub it 
well in, as it will want much more of your mixture 
than when they were not washed, but they will 
look of a much brighter and more brilliant colour- 
You will find how to take out all your ink, and 
other stains, by the directions given in the receipts. 
When you clean your chairs, remove them all 
out into the middle of the room. 1 have often 
seen, in many houses where I have been, the walls 
marked and smutted all over with the oil, or what- 
ever they cleaned their furniture with. This has 
a very bad appearance ; besides, it disfigures the 
walls in a ridiculous manner, and shows great 
neglect of neatness in the servant. Therefore, 
when you clean your chairs, sideboards, &c. al- 
ways move them from the walls, and be very par- 
ticular about the backs of your chairs, and the 
edges of the tables, that you do not leave any of 
your mixture, to dirty the ladies' or gentlemen's 
clothes, as this would be a sad affair. But I trust 
you will follow these remarks and observations 
which 1 have laid down, and you are sure to give 
general satisfaction. 



BRUSHING AND FOLDING GENTLEMEN'S 
CLOTHES. 

This is another part of a house servant's busi- 
ness, which requires a great deal of care, as good 



32 

clothes are often spoiled through neglect and bad 
management. Therefore I shall endeavour to give 
you some directions and insight of brushing and 
folding them up in a proper manner. In the first 
place, if your gentleman's clothes should happen 
to get wet or muddy, hang them out in the sun or 
before the fire to dry. Do not attempt to brush 
them while wet, or you will surely spoil them, but 
as soon as they are perfectly dry, take and rub 
them between your hands where there any spots 
of mud, then hang them on your clothes horse, 
which you must have for the purpose ; then lake a 
rattan and give them a whipping, to take out the 
dust, but be careful and don't hit the buttons, or 
you will be apt to break or scratch them. 

When this is done, take your coat and spread it 
on a table at its full length. Let the collar be to- 
wards the left hand, and the brush in your right, 
then brush the back of the collar first, between 
the shoulders next, then the sleeves and cuffs, then 
brush the farthest lapel and skirt, then the near 
one, observing to brush with the nap of the cloth, 
as it runs towards the skirts. When all these parts 
are properly done, then fold as follows. Double 
the off sleeve from the elbow towards the collar, 
the other the same way ; then turn the lapel over 
the sleeve as far as the back seam, and the other 
in the same manner ; then turn up the oif skirt so 
that the end may touch the collar ; the near one 
the same ; give it a light brush over, and then turn 
one half the coat right even over the other, and 
you will find the coat folded in a manner that will 
gain you credit from any genUeman, and will keep 
smooth for any journey. 



33 



BRUSHING AND CLEANING GENTLEMEN'S 
HATS. 

This is another part of a gentleman's wardrobe, 
that you should pay much care and attention to, 
or otherwise it will soon look shabby. You should 
have a soft camels' hair brush to brush your hats 
with, as this brush will not injure the fur, nor 
scratch it off. Should the hat happen to get wet, 
you must handle it as lightly as possible, or you 
will put it out of form, but to remedy this, you 
should put your left hand with your fingers ex- 
tended open, into the hat, then take a silk hand- 
kerchief in your right hand and rub it lightly all 
round, the way the fur goes, until almost dry ; 
then take your hat-brush and brush it the way the 
fur goes until almost dry ; if the fur sticks and does 
not brush smooth, you must take the brush that 
you polish your shoes with. Should the fur not 
come smooth, you must dip a sponge in some beer 
or spirits of wine, the latter is preferable, as it 
gives a brilliant jet lustre to the fur. Continue to 
brush with yonr hand brush until dry ; then give 
it a light rub over with a silk handkerchief, and 
put in your hat-stick. There are some people that 
think brushing a hat while it is wet, certainly spoils 
it ! but it is quite the contrary ; for the hatters 
themselves always brush and finish off their hats 
while damp, so as to give the fur a brilliant appear- 
ance. Likewise they set them to thefr regular 
shapes while damp. I have received these in- 
structions myself, from one of the best hat manu- 
facturers in London ; and I hope that my young 
4 



34 



friends will follow the example, that their mode of 
working may be a credit to themselves, and give 
general satisfaction to their employers ; therefore I 
shall proceed to give you some instructions in the 
following pages, on the next part of your work. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE PANTRY. 

The pantry is the place where the footman gen- 
erally does the most part of his work, such as to 
clean his plate, trim his salts and casters, and trim 
his lamps and candlesticks, wash his breakfast 
things, and his glasses and silver after dinner, and 
several other articles ; therefore you should be 
very particular in keeping it clean and neat, and 
have all your drawers and lockers for their sever- 
al uses. Make it a general rule always to have 
every thing in its proper place, as nothing looks 
worse than to see every thing topsy turvy ; this is 
an English phrase, but the meaning is, to see every 
thing in its wrong place ; for the beauty of a good 
servant is to have a proper place for every thing 
that is used in common, that he may know where 
to lay his hand upon it, when it is wanted ; this 
will be greatly to your advantage. 

In the next place you must have a small tub to 
wash your breakfast things in, and another for 
your glasses, as the one you wash your breakfast 
things in generally is greasy, as you often have 
eggs, sausages, ham, &c. for breakfast. You 
should likewise have a sufficiency of towels, as it 
is impossible to do work without good materials to 
do it with, therefore you should have cloths for 



35 

your glasses, tea things, and likewise for your 
knives, knife trays, and lamps, and always use 
your towels for their proper uses ; your water for 
your tea things should be as hot as you can bear 
your hand in it. Put in a little soap, as it gives 
china a fine polish and keeps them from having a 
greasy feeling ; do not put too many tea cups or 
saucers in at a time for fear of breaking them ; be 
particular and wipe them very dry and clean, and 
put them by neat and tidy ; there is nothing stands 
more high for the reputation of a servant, than to 
see his pantry kept neat, and every thing in it 
handsomely arranged in its place. 



DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING TEA TRAYS. 

This is another part of your work that requires 
much care, as such articles are often spoiled 
through not being properly attended to. In the 
first place you never should pour boiling water on 
a tray, as it makes the varnish crack and peel off. 
When your japan trays are dirty, take a sponge 
and dip it in warm water, rub on a little soap, and 
wash your tray with this; wipe it dry, and if it 
looks smeary, dust a little flour over it, and polish 
off with a dry cloth. This is the most safe and 
best way to clean and polish japanned tea trays. 
If your paper trays should get spotted, take a 
piece of flannel, dip it in some sweet oil, and rub 
it over the spots; if any thing can take them out, 
this will. Polish off with a soft cloth, then lightly 
with an old silk handkerchief, which you must 
keep for this purpose. 



In the next place you must be very particular in 
wiping out your tea urn after it is emptied. Never 
leave any wet on the outside, for it will leave 
marks after it. Always make it a general rule to 
put away every thing in its proper place ; and 
never leave your glasses, trap's, or plate about 
dirty any longer than you can get a chance to 
wash them and put theba away ; for if they are 
left around, they are apt to get broken, and of 
course it will be laid to your negligence, which 
surely it is. There are many houses that you 
may go into and find the pantry in a sad dilemma, 
and at an hour of the day when a servant ought to 
be ashamed to have his things so disorderly. 
There is nothing that points out a good, capable 
servant, so soon as to see his things kept in good 
order, and in their proper places. 



WASHING AND CLEANING DECANTERS. 

In washing decanters, the greatest care should 
be taken, both as to what you clean them with, and 
that you do not break them. There are various 
ways of cleaning them, and every one thinks his 
own way the best. There are some that recom- 
mend sand, cinders, coals, &c. and more above 
them, recommend sand-paper, egg-shells, wood- 
ashes, and what not. I have tried almost all these 
articles, but none of them have answered my ex- 
pectations, for the whole of these articles have a 
kind of a scratching quality about them, very unfit 
for this purpose ; therefore I shall give you direc- 
tions for one that has fully answered my purpose 



37 

for many years. In the first place, take some 
thick brown paper, cut it up into small pieces, then 
roll it between your hands, and put it into your 
decanter, with a few bits of soap cut small ; then 
pour into the decanter some warm water, not boil- 
ing, and shake them about for some time, until you 
see the scum and dirt quite disappear. You may 
add in a little pearl ashes with the soap. Should 
any of the crust of the wine appear, apply a piece 
of sponge made fast to a piece of cane or stick for 
this purpose ; this will remove all the scum or crust 
of the wine out of the old scratches, and give your 
decanters a beautiful polish. Rinse them twice in 
cold clean water, and turn up to drain ; when 
they are well drained, wipe them clean with your 
glass towel, and afterwards take your shammy 
leather to give them the last polish. If they are 
cut glass, you must have a brush to brush the lint 
which your glass cloth may leave in the cutting, 
or rough work, then give them a good polish with 
your shammy leather, and put them away in their 
proper places. Now, my youug friends, I have 
here given you instructions how to proceed, and I 
sincerely wish that you may follow the example. 



ON TRIMMING THE CRUET STAND OR 
CASTERS. 

This is the most particular article that belongs 
to your dinner utensils ; therefore you should re- 
member to examine it every day to see if all the 
cruets are clean, and full of every thing that is ne- 
cessary, to have in them, such as mustard, oil, vin- 
4* 



38 

egar, catsup, soy, black pepper, and cayenne, or 
other sauces that you may have bottles for; there- 
fore you should always see that your casters are 
furnished with all those articles daily, as there is 
nothing that looks so negligent in a servant, than 
to want for any of these articles when called for 
by any of the company. Besides, it is a great 
mortification to your employers, as a lady should 
not want to be troubled to look after these things, 
if she has a man that is capable of his business. 
You should therefore make it your chief study to 
have every thing in good order that is under your 
care and influence ; it will not only gain credit from 
your employers, but meet the approbation of other 
ladies and gentlemen who may visit there. In the 
next place you should never leave your mustard 
spoon in your mustard after dinner is over, or 
your salt spoons in your salt cellars, especially if 
they are silver or plated, as salt left on any plated 
article is sure to rust or canker, therefore you 
should always wash your mustard and salt spoons, 
when you are washing up your glasses and silver, 
after dinner ; and you should likewise empty out 
your salt, and wipe dry your salt cellars, and put 
them away in their proper places : you will find 
directions, by looking for them in the Index, for 
mixing your mustard and all other articles which 
you may have occasion for using. You should 
never waste any thing, for it is a very wicked thing 
to waste or destroy any of your employer's proper- 
ty, except what is absolutely necessary. 



39 



TO CLEAN TEA AND COFFEE URNS. 

These are articles that should be taken great 
care of, as they are generally very expensive, and 
if not taken care of, they are easily spoiled. If 
your tea or coffee urns are silver or plated, you 
must clean, as under the head of Plate ; but if they . 
are bronze, you must clean them as per direction 
in the Index. Be very particular when you put 
by your urns, that they are perfectly dry inside; 
if not they are apt to get musty. Should you put 
by your urus to remain any length of time, take 
and fill them with old paper ; it is a very good plan 
to have covers made for your urns, as this pre- 
vents the flies from dirtying them, and likewise 
keeps them free from dust or damp. You should 
be very careful when you are filling your urn, that 
the water or coffee is on a level with the heater, 
if not the heater is ver^'' apt to burn the sides and 
top of the urn. 

You must likewise be very careful when you 
put in your heater, that you do not let it down too 
heavy, as there is great danger of breaking the 
bottom of the urn. Tea and coffee urns are often 
spoiled through servants not studying such obser- 
vations as these. There should be a proper hook 
to put in the heater and to take it out, and by this 
way you will never injure your urn. In the next 
place you must always have your water that is 
for tea, boiling, before you put it into the urn, for 
it is impossible to make good tea if the water does 
not boil, even, if the tea is of ever so good a quali- 
ty. Now, my young friends, I have here given 
you instructions concerning yonr tea and coffee 



40 

urns, and how to manage them ; therefore I trust 
that you will imitate them as near as possible, and 
always study to give general satisfaction to those 
you serve. 



MAHOGANY DINNER TRAYS. 

These are another part of your work, that should 
be kept in good order, as they are a part of the 
furniture, which is most commonly carried in and 
out of the parlour, through the course of dinner ; 
therefore you should endeavour to keep them 
clean and in good order, as they are exposed to 
the eyes of the company. You should clean them 
as the rest of the mahogany, but you will often 
have to wash them, as they are liable to have 
gravy and other sauces spilled in them, during the 
carrying up and down of the dinner ; but as soon 
as dinner is over, you should wash out your trays 
if they want it, and hang them up in their proper 
places, until you clean them the next day, when 
you are cleaning your furniture. 

There is nothing so advantageous to a servant as 
to have good rules to work by, therefore his princi- 
pal one should be, to keep every thing in its pro- 
per place, and in good order. I have lived in fam- 
ilies where I could go to my pantry at any hour 
of the night, let it be ever so dark, and lay my 
hand on any thing that I wanted, as quick and 
with as little noise as if I had a light. This is easi- 
ly done, if you only give yourself the habit of put- 
ting things by tidy and in their proper places. 
Should you have a sink in your pantry, as there 
generally is, be very particular in keeping it clean ; 



41 

throw no tea leaves or any dirt that may stop up 
the waste pipe ; if you do, the water will grow 
stagnated, and cause a bad smell, which is very dis- 
agreeable. After you have done washing up your 
glasses, rinse out your sink with clean wrter, wipe 
it dry with a coarse towel, that you must have for 
that purpose. 



REMARKS ON THE MORNING'S WORK IN 
WINTER TIME. 

Now, my young friends, I shall- here give you 
some instructions how to proceed with your morn- 
ing's work, in winter time. In the first place, make 
it your business to h^ve plenty of wood, coal, or 
whatever fuel you burn, in its proper place over 
right, as it will save you a great deal of time in 
the morning, as the mornings are so short at this 
season of the year, and it is a great advantage to 
have these necessaries in readiness, where perhaps 
you have three or four fires to make, and grates 
and fire irons to clean before the family rises. In 
the next place you should rise early so as to be 
able to have j'our fires made and the rooms warm 
before you clean yourself for breakfast. Therefore 
when you first come down, make as little noise as 
you possibly can in openiiig your rooms where 
you have fires to make, then proceed to take up 
your ashes, clean your grates, or fire irons, and 
tidy up your hearth. When this is done, proceed 
to make your fires. When they are all made, and 
burning well, then wash your hands, and open 
your shutters, and proceed to set out your break- 
fast table. When this is done, go round and see 



42 

that all your fires burn well, or if they want re- 
plenishing, that the rooms may be warm and com- 
fortable against the family come down stairs. 
Keep all your doors shut, and then, if you think 
you have time to clean your front-door brasses 
before they come down, it is a very desirable job 
to get out of the way before the family come 
down ; but you can judge as to what time you 
have to spare. As you should have yourself clean 
and tidy against they come down to breakfast, you 
should always clean your boots and shoes over 
night, because it gives you more time in the morning. 



DIRECTIONS FOR SETTING OUT THE 
BREAKFAST TABLE. 

Now, my young friends, I shall give you some 
instructions how to set out your breakfast, dinner, 
and tea tables ; but I first will give you instruc-- 
tions for your breakfast table. In the first place, 
say all your things are clean and in readiness in. 
your pantry, as they should be, and that your 
family for breakfast consists of six or eight people. 
In the first place, dust off your table clean, and 
spread your cloth neatly, observing that the centre 
crease of your cloth is right in the centre of the 
table, and that it don't hang longer at oneend than 
at the other : then proceed to set out your break- 
fast tray ; laying a cup and saucer for each per- 
son, with a teaspoon in each saucer, at the right 
hand .side of the cup ; then set in the centre of the 
tray, your sugar pot on the right hand, your creatij 



43 

pot on the left, and your slop bowl in the centre^ 
with your tea pot behind them, so as to be right 
under the tea urn, and that the tap of the urn may 
reach it, when on the table. As soon as you have 
this done, set your tray at the end of the table 
where the lady sits that pours out the tea, then 
put around your plates, one for each person, put- 
ting them at a proper distance from each other 5 
then your knife and fork to each small plate, the 
knife on the right hand, the fork on the left, with 
the end of the handles even with the edge of the 
table ; you must always have salt on the table, as 
most families have eggs, or some kinds of meat on 
the table for breakfast. 

In summer, you must put your butter and cream 
to cool some time before you have set your table. 
If you have not a proper cooler, take a large bowl, 
and half fill it with water, then put a small plate in 
the bottom of the bowl, then put in your butter and 
cream pot, then a small piece of ice, if you use 
any. This is a very good method to cool your 
butter and cream for breakfast. If your break- 
fast table is rather small you must spread a nap- 
kin on a small stand, place it on the left hand side 
of the lady that makes tea ; place on this the tea 
caddy, and if there is not room on the breakfast 
tray, for all your cups and saucers to be placed 
tiniform, you may put the remainder on the stand. 
Remember to put on a knife for your bread and 
one for the butter, and if any cold meat is put on 
the table lay a dinner knife and fork to it for carv- 
ing ; and if there are eggs, do not forget the spoons ; 
and if you don't use egg cups a^d stands, you 
Oiust put on wine glasses. If any of your family 
like mustard with their meat, you must put the 
cruet stand or casters on the stand. 



44 

When you have every thing properly arranged 
on your breakfast table, then put round the chairs, 
and if it is cold weather, see that your fires burn 
well, and your room comfortable, against the fami- 
ly come down to breakfast ; then see that the wa- 
ter boils, and that your heater is in good order for 
your urn. Always fill your urn before you put in 
your heater ; and don't forget your urn ring if 
they use one. 

When you take in the urn, place it exactly be- 
hind the tea pot, that the tap 'may come over it, 
and be near enough to the person that makes tea 
that they may turn it into the tea pot without 
standing up. 

Whatever you have to carry in for breakfast, 
such as toast, rolls, eggs, &c. always take them in 
on a waiter ; never carry in, or hand any thing 
with the naked hand, as it looks very ungenteel. 
Now I have given you full instructions for your 
breakfast table, I shall proceed to give you in- 
structions for your dinner table. 



REGULATIONS FOR THE DINNER TABLE. 

There is not any part of a servant's business that 
requires greater attention and systematical neat- 
ness, than setting out his dinner table, and manag- 
ing for a party of sixteen or eighteen people. It is a 
branch of a servant's business wherein he can show 
more of his ability than in any thing else that he 
may have to encounter. There are many servants, 
we very well know, that make great pretensions to 
conducting a party or dinner, who yet never knew 
the first principles of properly waiting at table. 



45 

This causes great confusion in a house, both to the 
family, and the rest of the servants. It is no easy 
thing to be able to wait properly at dinner, and to 
have every thing done in proper and systematical 
order. I am sorry to say that I have seldom 
met with many servants who could properly man- 
age a dinner party of sixteen or eighteen, without 
confusion in some part or the other of it ; and par- 
ticularly in small families, where they have com- 
pany but seldom. Confusion often occurs, through 
not having a sufficiency of things for the party, 
without having to wash plates, spoons, &c. while 
at dinner ; and it likewise too often happens, 
through fault of the servant at the head of the fam- 
ily not knowing his business. 

In the first place, the greatest attention should be 
paid, to have all the things that are for use properly 
arranged, and appointing each attendant his proper 
place, and what he has to do. You will always 
find the more help there is to wait on table, the 
more confusion there is, especially if their difierent 
offices are not pointed out before dinner by the 
servant that is to conduct the dinner. I have al- 
ways found that one good servant that understands 
his business, c?n do more work in its proper order 
than three awkward ones, as they are chiefly in 
each other's way, and this causes a great confusion 
in the course of dinner. There are some families 
that think a servant ought to wait on eight or ten at 
dinner,but I tell them that they are much mistaken, 
for this is too many for one man to wait upon, to do 
it to perfection •, and especially if there are many 
changes. Therefore, my young friends, I have 
now brought you thus far and given you general 
directions in the various branches before laid down, 
5 



46 

in which I have generally addressed myself to all ', 
I therefore shall now address myself to Joseph per- 
sonally, and consider him as having a party of ten, 
where there is no man servant kept but him- 
self, and no one to show him but himself, and where 
he must be answerable for conducting the party 
alone; therefore I shall give him all the instruc- 
tions in my power; and by the rest of my young 
friends listening with attention,it may prepare them 
for such situations in future. 

Now, Joseph, the first thing that is to be attend- 
ed to, is to enquire of the cook what there is for 
dinner ; by doing this you will be able to judge 
what things you may vi^ant, as it is very awkward 
to leave the room, in the middle of the dinner 
for things that you should have had before the din- 
ner was served up. In the next place you should 
ask the cook if there is any particular way of send- 
ing things up; as you may make sad mistakes if 
3^ou have not a bill of fare, and should you have 
one, you will not be at a loss how to put the dinner 
on the table in proper order as it is there directed. 

LAYING THE CLOTH, &C. 

In putting the cloth on the table, you should be 
very particular,observing, in the first place, to have 
its right side uppermost. This you may easily learn 
by looking at the hem and fold. Likewise you 
must be very particular to have the bottom of the 
cloth to the bottom of the table. In most all dinner 
cloths that are spread for company, there is 
generally some ornamental work wrought on them, 
on some there is the family's coat de arms, 
on others, baskets of flowers, birds, branches, &c. 



47 

Then suppose there is a basket of flowers, the bot- 
tom of the basket should be towards the person at 
the bottom of the table, as the design should al- 
ways go up the table ; the centre of the table cloth 
should likewise go exactly down the centre of the 
table, and not hang the eighth of an inch longer at 
one end than the other. 

SETTING OUT THE DINNER TABLE. 

When your cloth is perfectly even, then put 
round your plates, laying four at each side, and 
one at each end, observing to have them at equal 
distance from each other, then put on your nap- 
kins, having them neatly folded so as to admit the 
bread into them, without being seen ; then put 
round your knives and forks, placing the knives at 
the right hand, with the edge of the blade towards 
the plate, and the end of the handle to come even 
with the edge of the table ; then place round your 
forks on the left hand, in the same manner ; then 
put your carving knife and fork head and point, in 
the same way. When you have this done, put a 
dinner knife and fork at each side of the table, 
opposite the centre, for carving with ; then put 
round your tumblers, one at the right side of each 
plate, about three inches from the edge of the ta- 
ble. The best method to have them at an equal 
distance from the edge of the table is, to take a 
steel fork, hold the prong in your right hand, al- 
lowing about three fnches of the handle and prong 
to be extended from your fore finger against the 
edge of the table, letting the handle of the fork go 
in on the table ; then draw your tumbler so as to 
touch the handle of the fork ; and so on to each 



48 

tumbler. By this process you will be able to have 
your tumblers at a proper distance from the edge 
of the table; then put round your wineglasses, 
one before each tumbler ; let the foot of each 
wine glass touch the tumbler, and this will keep 
them even, in like manner ; then put round your 
plates ; put a spoon between each plate in a straight 
line all around the table, with the bowls upwards, 
as they show much better to advantage ; then 
put on your two large gravy-spoons, one at the bot- 
tom, and another at the top. Put these across, 
before the head and foot plate; then put round 
your salts, which should be six in number, as this 
is the regular quantity for ten to dinner. Remem- 
ber to put on your salt spoons, and if you have a 
salad to go in the centre of the table, lay a silver 
waiter under it, so as to raise your sakd bowl 
more majestically. If you have four wines, put 
one at each corner of the table, but not so near as 
to be knocked off. When removing dishes, if your 
family dine by candle light, the candlesticks or 
branches are put in the centre of the table. Should 
there be branches, the salad or epergne must be 
put in the centre, with one of the branches between 
that and the bottom, and the other between that and 
the top ; you should have plenty of plates, knives 
and forks, spoons, glasses of both kinds, and every 
thing else that is necessary for your dinner ; as it 
is much better to have in the room more things 
than are wanted, of every description, than not to 
have enough ; as this causes great confusion. 

SETTING OUT THE SIDEBOARD. 

In setting out your sideboard, you must study 
neatness, convenience, and taste ; as you must 



49 

think that ladies and gentlemen that have splendid 
and cosily articles, wish to have them seen and set 
out to the best advantage. I have often seen at 
parties, where I have been attending, side boards 
and side tables set out in such a manner that they 
looked quite in a state of confusion ; whereas, if 
they were set out in a proper order, they would 
make a magnificent appearance. There are some 
old and experienced servants, that will set out their 
tables and side boards with such a degree of taste 
and neatness, that they will strike the eyes of eve- 
ry person who enters the room, with a pleasing 
sensation of elegance.. 

The grapes which are to go on with the des- 
sert, &c. with all the spare glasses that are for 
dinner, must go on the sideboard, with your cham- 
paign, hawk, and ale glasses. When all these are 
properly arranged, they make a grand display. 
Your glasses should form a crescent, or half circle, 
as this looks most sublime. ]f you should have a 
light on your sideboard, you must leave a vacant 
place behind your glasses for it ; in forming the 
crescent, your highest glasses must be the farthest 
off, and the smaller ones in an inner circle. Let 
them be put two and two, that is, one large and one 
small, that you may have them ready when want- 
ed. In the space between the glasses, place your 
cruet-stand or casters, this must be right in the 
centre of the sideboard, and about two inches 
from the edge ; then put at each side of your cas- 
ters your two water decanters, then your small sil- 
ver hand waiters, one on each side of each water 
decanter, then your wine for the dessert, in the 
silver coursters, in the same manner; then if there 
is any vacancy left, you may fill it up with some 
5* 



60 

spoons, as spoons, &c. give glass a brilliant dis- 
play. If your sideboard is very large, you may 
put your finger glasses on it, but mind that every 
thing looks uniform. In the next place, put your 
plate in the most convenient place, with your knife 
trays and clean cloths spread in them. Keep one 
of them for removing the knives from the dishes, 
before you take the dishes from the table. 

You never should take a dish from the table with 
the knife and fork in it, as it is very dangerous ; if 
the knife or fork should fall off, it might perhaps 
stick in your foot, or, on the other hand, it will 
dirty the carpet, which is a very disagreeable 
thing, and is sure to give dissatisfaction to the lady 
of the family. 

There are many such disasters as this that hap- 
pen through the servant's not attending properly 
to the regular rules of waiting at table. There 
are many servants that put themselves quite in a 
state of confusion, by being in too great a hurry. 
The beauty of a servant is to go quietly about the 
room when changing plates or dishes ; he never 
should seem to be in the least hurry or confusion, 
for this plainly shows that he is deficient of his 
duty. A man that knows his business well, should 
take hold of things as a first-rate mechanic, and 
never seem to be agitated in the least. You should 
always have a quick, but light and smooth step, 
around the room while waiting ; practice will 
soon bring you to this. And in the next place you 
should always wear tight shoes or thin pumps 
while waiting at dinner, as it impossible for you to 
go quick and light, if you wear heavy shoes or 
boots, in the parlour. 



51 

THE SIDE TABLE. 

The side table is the place where you are to 
have all your dinner plates, pudding and cheese 
plates, and likewise the dessert plates, if there is 
not room on your sideboard for them. You must 
have a clean cloth spread upon it, as your salad 
and cold meats are to be placed on it, if they are 
not put on your dinner table. Divide your dinner 
plates into three piles ; place one pile in the cen- 
tre of the side table, about two inches from the 
edge, then place your other two piles, one on each 
side, leaving a regular space betwe<en them, so as 
to place your knives and forks between them, and 
this you must do with great taste, that they may 
look ornamental like the things on your side- 
board, observing the same rule, to have every 
thing that is wanted first, next at hand. Place in 
the space that is left between the centre pile and 
that on the right hand, your large knives and 
forks, letting the ends of all the handles be on an 
even line with the edge of the table ; then in the 
space on the left of the centre pile, set your small 
knives and forks, in the same manner, observing 
every thing to be uniform and in its proper place. 
Then place a pile of your small cheese plates be- 
hind the pile of large ones at the left of the cen- 
tre, and your pudding plates behind the pile on 
the right, having each pile of an even height. But 
there should be no more than a dozen and a half 
in each pile, at most. Should there be any more 
vacant places, ornament them with some spoons, 
and your sauce ladles ; having the bowls upper- 
most, as they show to more advantage ; but leave 
room enough behind for your cold meats, if there 



52 

is any ; then put your dowlasses on your dessert 
plates,with a dessert knife, fork and spoon ; the knife 
to the right side and the fork to the left, with the 
spoon in the centre. Place those neatly on your 
side table, if there is not room on the sideboard for 
them ; but the sideboard is the proper place, as 
they are convenient to the dessert glasses, &c. 

Insetting out your sideboard and side table you 
should always study convenience and elegance, in 
putting your things on, and study to have plenty 
of every thing, that you need not have to leave 
the room during the course of dinner. You must 
never be afraid of a little trouble when there is 
company, for where the sideboard and side table 
is set out with taste and ingenuity, it has a very 
pleasing effect to those who go in and see order 
and design prevail. 

Never bring in your cheese before wanted, as the 
smell may be disagreeable to some of the company. 

In the next place you should be careful not to 
make any more noise than you possibly can. When 
changing the plates, take off" your dirty knife and 
fork very gently, and lay them in your knife tray, 
and put the plate into the plate basket as gently as 
you can. When returning a clean plate, lay your 
knife and fork on it as easy as you can, so as to 
cause no rattle nor noise. Put the knife on the 
right and the fork on the left in the bowl of the 
plate, and lay it before the lady or gentleman as 
gently as possible. Always observe to go to the 
left side of the person that you hand any thing 
to, or take any thing from, as it is very awkward 
to hand any thing at the right hand side of the 
person ; I have seen many accidents happen through 
the neglect of not practising these rules. In many 



53 

cases there have been whole glasses of beer, water, 
and wine, upset, all through handing it at the right 
hand side ; for instance, perhaps the gentleman to 
whom 3^ou are taking the glass of beer, &c. may 
raise his arm, and thus upset the whole. 

DINNER ON THB TABLE, 

When your dinner is on the table, and every 
thing that is necessary, stand at the bottom and 
cast your eyes along the table, and you will per- 
ceive in an instant if any of your dishes are not 
properly placed. You should observe to have 
your side dishes in a straight line, and at a regular 
distance from each other, and also match in size 
and colour, cross corners, your four corner dishes 
should go rather on a square, and to match each 
other cross corner ; as a middling dinner when 
well served up, and the dishes well matched, and 
at a proper distance from each other, has a more 
pleasing aspect that double as large a one, when 
crowded, and improperly put on table ; yoa 
should pay the greatest attention to this rule, 

WAITING ON DINNER, 

When the chairs are put round, and all things 
quite ready, proceed to the drawing room, or 
wherever the company is. If the drawing room 
is large, advance a little towards the lady or gen- 
tlf man of the family, and with a graceful motion 
of your head, say, " Ma'am," or " Sir, the dinner 
is served ;" or " Ladies and Gentlemen, dinner is 
on the table." When you see that they have no- 
ticed the announcement, then proceed to the din^ 



54 

ing room door, and hold it open until the company 
have all gone in, then shut it, and when the com- 
pany have sat down, if there is soup, take off the 
cover ; if there should be only fish at the top, and 
a joint at the bottom, remove the cover from off the 
fish or soup, and from off the proper sauce for the 
fish ; and if there is no one but yourself to wait, 
take your station at the bottom of the table, about 
a yard behind the person that sits at the foot of 
the table; stand rather a little to the left of his 
chair. By standing in this position, you will com- 
mand a full view of the table ; whereas if you 
stand behind the person that carves, at the bottom 
of the table, you cannot see when the plates want 
changing. When you hold a plate to the carver 
to help a lady or gentleman, stand at the left hand 
of the carver, holding the plate in your left hand, 
with your thumb on the rim of the plate, and your 
two fingers extended under the bottom ; you should 
never let your thumb go farther than the rim of 
the plate, for it is a very improper thing to run 
your thumlD half way across the plate. If you 
want to tip the dish for gravy, change the plate 
into your right hand, and be careful that you do 
not spill the gravy on the cloth. When you take 
it to whom it is for, go to the left side, and with your 
right hand take the plate that is done with, and with 
your left hand lay the other gently before them. 

You should never lay a plate before a lady or 
gentleman at their right hand side, except by 
some particular reason, that you have to sit»it 
down with your right hand on the right hand side. 
When you are holding a plate to a carver, or 
handing the vegetables or sauces round, you must 
hold them in your left hand at the side of the per- 



55 

son you have to serve ; and keep your fingers ex- 
tended under the bottom, and in the same manner 
as you hold a plate. 

When you are taking off all your covers, begin 
at the bottom dish first, at the left hand side, tak- 
ing them off with your left hand all round, until 
you come to the bottom again, then place them in 
your dinner tray until you have time to take or 
send them out of the room. When beer, cider, or 
water is called for, go to the right side, as the 
tumbler stands on that side 5 and be careful that 
you do not run them over, as you will wet the cloth. 
W^hen you hand a glass or any thing on a hand 
waiter, always go to the left side. 

When you hand a glass, knife and fork, or any 
thing else to any of the company, always take a 
hand waiter, as it is very improper to hand any 
thing with the naked hand ; likewise when you 
are taking any thing off the table, such as a glass, 
spoons, or any other small article, have a waiter 
in your left hand, and take off the article with your 
right. In the next place when j'ou are ready for 
the removes, for the soup, and fish, ring the bell, 
that the cook may have it in readiness against you 
want it ; but, before you remove the soups or fish, 
take your knife tray, and remove the soup ladle 
and fish knife from them, holding your knife tray 
in your left hand, and removing them with your 
right. As soon as the removes are put on the ta- 
ble, uncover them, taking care that you don't dirt 
the cloth with the drops of steam from the covers, 
but, to hinder this, turn up the covers quick. 

Then the next thing is to exert your skill and 
ability, until the company is all served round, with 
meat, vegetables, &c. Then take your station, and 



56 

keep your eyes and ears open, to see and hear 
what the company may want, or ask for. Do not 
wait to be asked for every thing by the company ; 
for if you keep a sharp eye on the table, you will 
see many things wanted, by persons who perhaps, 
through being a little bashful, will not ask for them- 
selves ; such as bread, vegetables, or sauce ; like- 
wise what may be wanted on particular occasions, 
such as mustard to duck and goose, fish-sauce to 
fish, mint-sauce to lamb, lemon to veal, bread- 
sauce to fowls, &c. &c. When you remove or 
takeofi'the dishes, if large, put your two hands to 
them ; stand at the left side of the person who sits 
opposite; the small ones yoi^may take off with 
your one hand, but you must be very careful that 
you do not spill the gravy on the cloth. Always 
take a firm hold of the dishes when taking them 
off the table ; observing to keep your right hand 
up one side of the dish towards the centre of the 
table, and the left hand near the other end, keep- 
ing a firm grasp with your thumbs, and your fin- 
gers well extended under the dish ; always lift 
the dishes high enough to clear the glasses, &c.&c. 
When you perceive the company do not seem to 
eat of the dishes on the table, keep your eye on the 
lady or gentleman of the family, as they generally 
give the signal to remove the first course. You 
must give the cook information before dinner that 
you will ring the bell twice, as a signal for second 
course to be got ready. When you are taking off 
your dishes,do it very gently, but quick and handy. 
You must not seem to be in the least confusion, for 
there is nothing that looks so bad as to see a man in 
a bustle, or confused state, when he has the manage- 
ment of a party. He should always take hold of 



57 

his work as if he understood it, and never seem to 
be agitated in the least. 

As soon as you perceive the signal to remove the 
first course, take your knife-tray and remove all 
the knives, forks, and spoons, from all the dishes, 
and the ladles from out the sauce-boats, before you 
attempt to remove any of the dishes from off the 
table ; when you have finished this part, then go 
to the bottom of the table, and begin at the bot- 
tom dish, on the left side, taking all before you as 
you go along, observing to. keep on the left side of 
the person who sits opposite the dish you are tak- 
ing ; putting your two hands to the large one as 
directed ; and only your left hand to the small 
ones ; and so on, all round the table, until you 
come to the bottom again. 

Then proceed for your second course, which 
you may bring in on your dinner tray, if your tray 
is large enough. Place your second course into 
it as it is to go on the table, but if you have a bill 
of fare, you need not be so particular. Have your 
bill of fare in your tray, that you may make no 
mistakes, when putting your dishes on the table. 
Begin in the same manner as you took the others 
off, first at the bottom, then the left side, and so on 
all round, observing to place your dishes at a regu- 
lar distance from each other. When you have 
them all put on in proper order, take off all the 
covers as you did the first course, beginning at the 
bottom, up the left side, taking them off with your 
left hand, and so on until you come to the bottom 
again. See that there are knives, forks, and spoons, 
to the dishes that want them ; then be ready to 
wait on the company. 

When you see that they are finished with the 
6 



58 

second course,J,hen put round your small cheese 
plates as you take your others off, with a small 
knife ; if there is salad, you must put on a fork 
likewise. Have your salad, butter, cheese, and 
cucumbers ready against the second course comes 
off; but there are many families that have the sal- 
ad, butter, cheese, radishes, &c. all put on with 
the second course ; this saves a great deal of trou- 
ble and waiting on. But if your family should 
like the other way best, when your second course 
is done with, take your knife-tray, and remove 
all the knives, forks, and spoons, from off the dish- 
es. When this is done, take off all the dishes as 
directed in the other courses ; then put on your 
cheese, &c. If there should be two cheeses, with 
butter, salad, cucumbers, radishes, &c. put your 
cheese at top and bottom, your salad in the cen- 
tre, and your butter and radishes at the sides ; two 
plates of butter, and two of radishes to be put 
cross corners, will make your table look much bet- 
ter than with one of each. When you have put 
a knife to your cheese, another to j^our butter 
with your salad spoon to your salads, &c. then 
proceed to hand round the cheese and wait on 
the company. Sometimes there is champaign, 
porter, or ale handed round, while at cheese ; but 
in other families, while at the second course ; 
and in others when the dessert is put on the 
table ; but the gentleman of the family most com- 
monly gives directions about his wines, and when 
they "are to be put on the table. 

As soon as the company are done with the 
cheese, &c. take your knife-tray and remove your 
salad spoon, butter and cheese knife ; then begin 
and take off the dishes, as you did in the other 
courses ; then clear of all your dirty glasses. The 



59 

best means of doing this is to have a large waiter ; 
let one of those who help you, take a firm hold of 
it between his two hands while jou begin at the 
bottom of the table on the left side, and clear ev- 
ery glass, spoon, and knife away, while he is to fol- 
low you round with the waiter. When all is clear- 
ed away and the wine 'taken off the table, then take 
a large plate and a fork in your right hand, and take 
up all the pieces of bread, from the cloth; then 
take another plate and j^our table brush, or a clean 
towel rolled up, begin at the bottom on the left side, 
brushing off clean all the crumbs, until you come 
to the bottom again, then put round your finger 
glasses, one to each person, beginning at the bottom 
and going all round ; you may put on those to the 
right side of the ladies or gentlemen. When the 
company are all done with their glasses, begin at 
the bottom and lake them off all round. When 
this is done, take off your tablecloth, napkins, &c. 
then take a towel and wipe off your table, begin- 
ning at the bottom, and wiping all round ; then pro- 
ceed to put round your plates. 

PUTTING ON THE DESSERT. 

Put round your dessert plates one before each 
person, then your wine glasses, placing two on the 
right side of each plate, then put on your wine 
coursters, or decanter stands and wine ; if only two, 
put one near the corner, top and bottom, on the 
right side. If four, one to each corner. If differ- 
ent wines, place them so as to match cross corners; 
recollect to observe the same rule in putting on the 
dessert as the other courses, unless you have more 
dishes in number, in this case you may put on the 
dishes, top, middle and bottom ; before you put on 



60 

the sides, if you have a cake, put it right in the cen- 
tre, with your sugar basin and cut-glass water 
pitcher between the top and bottona dishes, in a right 
line down the centre of the table. Then put round 
your side dishes, beginning at the bottom on the left 
side, observing to keep them at equal distance from 
each other, and all your dishes to match in colour 
and size as near as possible, as this is the beauty 
of putting on your dessert. When you have all 
your dishes on the table, put a knife to your cake, 
and half a dozen oflarge spoons reverse to each 
other, down the centre of the table, to serve the 
dessert with. Should there be blancmange or ice 
creams, lay a small pile of plates top and bottom ; 
when there are ice creams, you must stop to serve 
it round to the company, until all are helped, then 
proceed to take all the dirty things out of the room, 
with as little noise as possible ; let your clean things, 
on the sideboard and sidetable remain until you 
clear away, after the company has retired from the 
room. Never seem to be in a hurry or bustle in 
leaving the room. When all your dirty things are 
cleared out, shut the door after you very gently, as 
you should never make more noise in the parlour 
than you can possibly help. 



PREPARATIONS FOR TEA AND COFFEE. 

If your family do not dine by candle-light, per- 
haps, against dinner is over, it may be time to light 
your lamps in the hall, and on the staircase; like- 
wise have all your lamps, branches, &c. in readi- 
ness in the drawing room, if not lighted, as the ladies 



61 

never stop long in the dining room after the dessert 
is over. When all your lamps are lit, and every 
thing in order, see that your boiler is full and in 
readiness for tea; then see to your silver, and knives 
and forks, that they are all washed, wiped, and 
put away in their places, that they may be in 
readiness to clean in the morning ; observe to put 
your silver forks and spoons in separate places, for 
if you put your forks and spoons together, they 
are apt to get scratched. You should likewise 
count your silver after it is washed up, for fear 
there should be any mislaid. 

Then see to your glasses, wash and wipe them 
dry, then put them by in their proper places : tidy 
up your pantry, and by this means you will have 
room for your other dirty glasses, &c. that are used 
for the dessert. When the gentlemen have retired 
from the dining room, then go in and first put 
away all the chairs in their places, then put away 
the fruit, &c. in their place, then take a large tray 
and take all the glasses off. Put by the wine, and 
empty all your dessert plates, and carry all the dirty 
things out to your pantry, or where you may wash 
them up. Wipe off the table, and take out all the 
clean tidings that remain on the sideboard and side 
table. When all is cleared away, and your room 
put in order, then proceed to wash up your glasses 
and dessert plates, spoons, &c. Wipe dry and put 
every thing away in their proper places, hang your 
towels to dry, and have yourself in readiness against 
they order tea or coffee. 

CARRYING TEA AND CO F TEE AROUND. 

In some houses the drawing room is up stairs ; 
should this be the case where you live, you must 
6* 



62 

be very careful when carrying your tea and coffee 
up stairs, that you do not slop it over into the sau- 
cers, as this would have a slovenly appearance to 
the company. Your tray should be large, if there is 
ranch company, that the ladies may take their cup 
and saucer with ease. At the first round you should 
have one cup of tea between every two of coffee, 
as they generally take more coffee than tea at the 
first round. When placing your cups and saucers 
on the tray, be particular and have them all uniform 
and not crowded; with your sugar and cream in 
the centre, and the sugar tongs and handle of the 
cream pot towards the company. Have, on another 
tray, your cake, wafers, toast, bread and butter,&c. 
all neatly arranged to take round after you have 
served tea and coffee to all the company. But if 
you have a large party, you should have some per- 
son to hand round the cake, &c. at the same time 
that you are serving round tea. 

When you first enter the room with the tea, cast 
your eyes around the company to observe where 
the most elderly lady is seated, then proceed for- 
ward and help her first, observing lo lower the wait- 
er, that the ladies may take their tea off with ease. 
When the ladies are all served, then proceed to 
help the gentlemen, beginning as with the ladies. 
When all the company are served with the first 
round, carry out your tray, and wipe it clean if wet, 
then take another waiter to receive the cups as 
soon as the ladies and gentlemen are done with 
them. During this interval, hand round your cake, 
&c. When you have received all your empty 
cups, rinse them out, and proceed to serve round 
another course, as before, beginning at the same 
lady, and going all round, leaving the lady of the 
family to be the last lady that is served, as the 



63 



strangers must always be served first. This second 
round is generally enough, but hand round the cake, 
&c. once, or twice after, then carry all out of the 
room, and, if cold weather, see that all your fires 
burn well. 



OBSERVATIONS ON SUPPER, &c. 

Now, my young friends, in the next place I shall 
give you some observations on the management of a 
supper party. In the first place, we will consider 
the party to be from twenty to thirty. Such 
parties are very common in private families of fash- 
ionable standing. In such parties they generally 
play at cards, &c. : therefore have your lamps or 
candles in good order and lighted up before the 
company has come, and, if cold weather, have your 
fires in good order ; likewise have your card tables 
placed out, and your chairs adjusted, and every 
thing properly arranged and in uniform array, that 
every thing may go on in good order, and without 
any bustle whatever, that you may gain credit 
from your employers and the company likewise. 

In the next place see that your tea and coffee 
things are in order, and all placed on your waiter 
in readiness, should they have tea or coffee, as they 
generally do, before supper; likewise have your 
glasses wiped and placed on your proper waiters, 
as there are generally refreshments carried up to 
the drawing room to the company before supper. 
Let every thing be in good order and in readiness, 
that there need be no confusion whatever. When 



64 

you have every thing properly arranged, and your 
rooms comfortable, then tidy yourself up, so as to 
look smart and clean, and have yourself in readi- 
ness to wait on the company, and show them to the 
drawing room. 

In some families the servant has to announce the 
several names of the company as they come, before 
entering the drawing-room. This is troublesome 
where there is not sufficient help kept; but it is a 
most fashionable thing in all families of distinction 
in England and France, that the lady and gentle- 
man of the family may receive them as they enter 
the drawing room, and introduce them to the rest 
of the company. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUPPER TABLE. 

You should always lay your cloth for supper be- 
fore the company comes, if you possibly can, as it 
saves you a great deal of time which j^ou may want 
afterwards, as the company generally wish some re- 
freshments carried up to them before supper, &c. 
Likewise you should learn from the lady of the fam- 
ily how many visitants are expected ; this will be a 
guide to let you see what length your table should 
be. When laying your cloth you must be as par- 
ticular as at dinner; let your knives, forks, spoons, 
and salts be placed with the same uniformity as at 
dinner, with a tumbler, wine glass, and if there is 
champaign, put on a glass likewise to each plate ; 
place your tumbler glasses the same distance as di- 
rected at dinner, with your wine glass and cham- 
paign glass about one inch from your tumbler, but 
on a straight line ; let your champaign glass be 
behind your wine glass. 



65 

Coollers or finger glasses are seldom used at sup- 
per parties ; you must have four or six water de- 
canters or cut glass pitchers, on your supper table, 
as the company generally help themselves at sup- 
per without the formality of more attendance than 
is necessary for comfort. If it is a cold supper, 
your plates may all be cold ; but if in cold weather 
and some hot dishes, your plates must be warm. 
And keep good fires, that the company may be all 
comfortable. You may place all your cold dishes 
on as soon as your table is laid, that you may have 
more leisure to place them on in proper uniform 
and neatness. Have all your dishes to match in 
size to each other on opposite sides if possible, and 
all at proper and equal distance from each 
other. Should you not have a bill of fare to go by, 
place them on in the best style you possibly can, so 
that the dishes match each other in colours, &c. 
cross corners. Have plenty of clean things in the 
room, and know that every thing that you may want 
is in the room before the company sits down. 
There is seldom much change of di'shes at a supper 
party, and especially if cold ; for then it all goes 
on at once ; therefore you will not want as many 
clean articles of each kind as at dinner, such as 
knives, forks, spoons, plates, &c. but have_plenty of 
brimmer glasses, tumblers, and wine glasses, on 
your sideboard and to be set out as at dinner. 
Your wine decanters must be put on at supper, as 
at dinner. Make it your study to put every thing 
on with taste, and as though you had a design for 
taste and ingenuity. Supper dishes are generally, 
and ought always to be garnished with green pars- 
ley or flowers ; if they are, be very careful not to 
shake them ofFwhen going up stairs, as they give a 
supper table a most sublime appearance, and par- 



66 

ticularlj in summer time, when every thing is green 
and in bloom. 

In waiting at supper, you must observe the same 
rules as what I have given for dinner, and regulate 
according to the number that you are to have to 
assist you to wait, that there may not be the least 
bustle or confusion in waiting on the company, 
as this is one of the most disagreeable things that 
the lady or gentleman of the family can see ; let 
each know his proper place appointed, and what he 
has to do ; therefore if you abide by those rules, eve- 
ry thing will go on in good order, and without any 
confusion or mismanagement. 

What can be more agreeable to the lady who 
gives the entertainment, than to see every thing go 
on with order and correctness, without having any 
blunders whatever ; but, the company to be com- 
fortably and systematically waited on ; this will 
give general satisfaction to the family, and gain 
credit for yourself. As soon as supper is over, and 
the company withdrawn from the supper table, 
then see to collecting your plate, and clearing your 
dirty things away, and put your clean things in 
their places. 



DIRECTIONS FOR EXTINGUISHING THE 
LAMPS, SHUTTING UP THE HOUSE, &c. 

As soon as you have all the clean articles put by 
in their proper places, and your room put to rights, 
then proceed to gather up your plate, &c. It is 
oftentimes that spoons, forks, &c. are thrown into 
the swill tub after a party, as the servants are gen- 



6? 

erally in a bustle or hurry ; so the present time is 
the best to count over your spoons, forks, &c. that 
if any are missing, you can make search immediate- 
ly. In the next place, when the party has broken 
up, and all dispersed, proceed to extinguish your 
lamps, &c. Your lamps must be turned down, 
not blown out. Then push up the keys of your 
lamps, that the oil may not flow over, to spoil the 
carpets, for this would be a sad disaster ; and it of- 
tentimes happens through the neglect of servants 
not attending properly to the lamps. When all 
your lights are extinguished, see that your fire- 
guards are put to your fires, and that every thing is 
safe in the rooms before you go out ; then fasten 
your front door ; then go round to all the doors and 
windows on the back part of the house, to ascer- 
tain whether they are all safe fastened. This is the 
most important part of a servant's duty, to see that 
the house, and all the fires are safe. It is so 
great and important a part of your duty, that the 
lives and property of your employers depends on it. 
How many instances have we heard and seen, of 
houses being burnt through the neglect of the ser- 
vants not having paid proper attention to the fires 
and lights ? and on the other hand how many houses 
have we heard of being robbed, through the neg- 
lect of the servant not paying proper attention to 
shutting the doors and favStening the windows? 
Another thing, you should have your hall door fast- 
ened at dusk, to prevent any one from coming in 
and stealing coats, cloaks, hats, &c. as this very 
often is the case in a city, and owing to the servants 
not fastening it in proper season. 

Now, my young friends, I think that I have given 
you sufficient instruction, and a full and clear in- 
sight into the manner and ways of setting out tables, 



68 

&LC. and waiting on parties in a systematical and 
proper order, whicii I trust, from my own experi- 
ence, is sure to give general satisfaction to your em- 
ployers, to gain their approbation, and to get credit 
for yourself. Perhaps you may find some trifling 
difference in some families, in little ways and no- 
tions of their own, for almost every different family 
has some different rules of its own, and of 
course you are bound to comply with them, as soon 
as you enter under an engagement to serve with the 
family ; for it is the duty of every servant to com- 
ply with his employer's wishes, and conform to 
his rules, even if he knows them to be imperfect. 
But still, the rules and observations which I have 
given, will be a true guide to those who may study 
and practise them, in the families whom they 
have the honour to serve. 

They are all my own experience, for several 
years past, in some of the first families in England, 
France, and in the United States of America ; and 
I am highly flattered that a work of this kind will 
be a most essential article to all private families; 
and likewise to those domestics that are not perfect, 
or properly taught the duty of a domestic, or house 
servant. There are many families that have the 
misfortune of meeting with men of this sort; and I 
am very well aware of the trouble that the lady of 
the family has with them, to bring them to under- 
stand their business, and by only having one of 
these books in the house for the use of the servant, 
they will be saved all that trouble, with only the 
exception of informing them of the rules of the fam- 
ily. I know there are many house servants that 
think themselves perfect in every branch of their 
duty ; but, when commg to peruse this work, may 
find things that they are quite deficient in, and will 



69 

see they never had the experience or opportunity of 
knowing. I sincerely hope that this work may do 
the same good as I expected, when beginning to 
write it. 



ADDRESS AND BEHAVIOUR TO YOUR 
EMPLOYERS. 

I am now going to give my young friends some 
advice concerning their behaviour to their employ- 
ers, &c. In the first place all domestics should be 
submissive and polite to their employers, and to all 
visitants that may come to the house. They should 
never be pert, or strive to enter into conversation 
with their employers or any visitant that may come 
to the house, unless they speak to you or ask you a 
question, then you should answer them in a po- 
lite manner, and in as few words as possible ; for 
you must know that is a very impertinent thing to 
strive to force conversation on your superiors, un- 
less they begin to converse with you first, and then 
you are to give answers to their questions, if you 
are versed in the knowledge of whatever may be 
the subject, and in as correct and pohte a manner 
as possible. 

When a lady or gentleman speaks to you, or 
asks you a question, answer them very kindly, 
Yes, Ma'am,— or No, Ma'am ; Yes, Sir,— or No, Sir. 
I have often heard servants answer their employ- 
ers in such an impertinent manner as to make my 
blood run cold, to think that any one should be so 
ignorant as not to know his place better ; because 
7 



70 

it is the duty of every servant to be submissive and 
obedient to his employers ; for as the old saying 
is, " kind and polite words break no bones ;" there- 
fore you should make it your whole study to be kind 
and obliging to all around you, then you are sure 
to gain credit and esteem from every one. You 
should likewise be civil and polite to all visitants 
who come to the house, and treat them with as 
much respect as you would your own employers, 
for it is a great advantage to a servant, to have the 
good wishes of those ladies and gentlemen that visit 
where they live, because you may perhaps one day 
or other, have access to their good word, &c. 



BEHAVIOUR TO YOUR FELLOW 

SERVANTS. 

The greatest comfort of servants is their be- 
haviour and conduct towards each other. You will 
always find that the' more you endeavour to promote 
the happiness of those around you, the more you 
will secure your own. , Never be hasty in passing 
judgment on any of your comrade servants, as we 
are all commanded by our great Creator to act 
with christian charity towards each other; and to 
do unto others as we would they should do unto us, 
were we in their situations, and they in ours. If 
this was the way, my friends, how much more pleas- 
ant our lives would pass away than they do. But 
how different the practice is, I have no need to 
mention, for time and experience will soon teach 
us what domestic quarrels are ; and I am sorry to 



71 

say that several families in this city have such 
scenes daily to witness. It is there you will see 
envy, malice, duplicity, dishonesty, and misrepre- 
sentation, and every evil, to the tormenting of each 
other, &c. Instead of living together in unity and af- 
fection, and making their home a little heaven, 
which they might, if they were so inclined, they 
make it a hell on earth, by their wickedness and 
disagreeable temper, and often wishing to tyran- 
nize over each other. 

I have known several places in Europe, where 
the servants had every necessary good p make 
them comfortable, but yet they were miserable, all 
through not agreeing one with the other, as they 
should do ; wherein is their true happiness, and 
without which they must live miserable. How much 
better for servants to live together in peace and 
happiness, than to be continually quarrelling among 
themselves; whereas, if they would only yield 
to each other, and be obliging among one 
another, they might live as comfortable and more 
free from care than their employers ; as they have 
many difficulties to encounter from which the ser- 
vant is free, and sure of his wages. However, it is 
the lot of all Adam's race to be born to afflictions ; 
servants therefore, have them more or less, as well 
as others. At such times we should exercise our 
charity, and be the more ready to assist each other 
in cases of sickness or misfortune; as we know not 
what or how soon it may be our own case. I have 
known some instances of the good intentions of a 
kind master towards an afflicted servant often to be 
frustrated, through the ill nature of the rest of the 
servants, who would not do any thing for him ;' 
thus, the poor afflicted creature is turned out of the 



72 

house, through the cruelty of his own companions. 
Such persons as those would do well to consider 
the words of our Lord and Saviour, as recorded in 
Matthew, 7th chapter, and 2d -verse ; " With what 
measure you mete to others, it shall be measured 
outco you again." Therefore consider, my young 
friends, how distressing must be the feelings of a 
servant when sick, and not able to do his dutj'' any 
longer ; and especially should he be in a foreign 
country, or far from parents or relations ; for rela- 
tions, we generally have many, but 'very few 
friends ; and especially at such a period as that, 
when on a bed of sickness and in poverty. 

Now, my young friends, I shall give a few words 
more of advice. In the first place, my advice is, 
never to irritate any person that you find to have a 
contentious spirit, nor hold anj' argument with such 
an one. Wherever you may live, strive to live in 
peace with all; make as many friends as you can, 
and as few enemies as possible. Watch over your 
own temper scrupulously^; strive not to provoke 
any person, not even a foolish or conceited person, 
for if you reprove such, they will certainly hate 
you, when a wise person would love and respect 
you. Always watch over the failings of others, as 
warning to yourself; and always try to do unto 
others, as you would they should do unto you. 
Keep this in mind, and it will support you under all 
your vexations. 

Take care and never do an injury to any ser- 
vant's character, for how easy they may be thrown 
out of bread through it, and perhaps led to greater 
evils. Always guard againstbeing influenced to do 
any kind of injustice to your comrade servants, 
either by lying? or any other revengeful spirit. Re- 



73 

member that the Lord abhors the deceitful man, 
and will not let him go unpunished ; for Solomon 
sajs, " he that uttereth a slander is a fool." And 
when we recollect that a servant depends wholly on 
his character for his living, we should be very care- 
ful what we say of each other. You should never 
oppress any, let them be ever so wicked, for good 
David saith, " God shall break in pieces the op- 
pressor," Psalm 72; and in the 12th, he saith, 
" For the oppression of the poor and the sighing of 
the needy, now will I arise, saith the Lord ; I will 
set him in safety, saith the Lord, from him that puf- 
feth at him." 

How much better would it be for us to act and 
do as holy Job did, both for our own comfort and 
for the comfort of those around us : hear what the 
good man says in chapter 39th. " I was eyes to 
the bUnd, and feet was I to the lame, I was a father 
to the poor, and the cause which I knew not, I 
searched out ; and I break the jaws of the wicked, 
and plucked the spoil out of his teeth ;" therefore I 
candidly say unto each of ye, go and do ye like- 
wise, as far as it is in your power so to do, and the 
Almighty will bring you safe through this wicked 
world, and place on you a crown of glory in the 
next : and I sincerely hope that my young friends 
may study those few hasty remarks and observa- 
tions which I have here laid down, and now con- 
clude with giving my friends some observations 
on the behaviour of servants at their meals. 



7* 



74 



BEHAVIOUR OF SERVANTS AT THEIR 
MEALS. 

Now, my friends, having had the pleasure and 
gratification of bringing je in perfect order to wait 
on jour superiors, 1 will therefore give ji'ou some 
advice and observations on behaviour and pro- 
priety at your own meals. In all families there is 
or should be a proper time for the meals in the 
kitchen, so as not to interfere with the parlour 
hours, as the servants are generally busy at that 
lime. All the help should be ready, if possible, to 
sit down together at their meals, unless they are 
hindered by their employers ; therefore you should 
strive to regulate your work, so as to be ready to 
sit down together, and not be loitering round as 
some do, which often is the cause of sad contention 
and confusion ; for where one comes now and an- 
other at another time, it interferes with the cook's 
business, and hinders her from getting her work 
done in proper season. 

Therefore, you should all sit down together 
thankfully, not to quarrel and dispute with each 
other, as very often is the case in families, and mur- 
muring that the provisions are not good enough ; 
this ( have often seen mjself to be the case, with 
those that had scarcely ever seen or known the 
comfort of eating a good meal, before they entered 
a gentleman's service. Flow wicked must be such 
conduct towards God, who has made their cups to 
run over with good things ; and how ungrateful 
must it be to their employers, who provide boun- 
tifully to make them comfortable. 



75 

In the next place you should always be careful 
of every thing belonging to your employers, and 
never make waste of any thing you possibly can 
avoid. Whenever you draw beer, cider, or the 
like for dinner, never draw more than you think is 
wanted ; for it is better to go twice than to make 
waste, and the old saying is a true one, " that a 
wilful waste often makes a woful want;" this I have 
often seen fulfilled, in those that have been extrava- 
gant and wasteful of the provisions under their 
charge. 

My young friends, supposing you were in your 
employer's situation, and servants under your com- 
mand, and your property in their charge, should 
you not think them very wicked and dishonest, 
when wasting your property and provisions? only 
put this to your own feelings, and it will give you 
full insight how you should act towards your em- 
ployers ; and how you should manage the proper- 
ty that is put under your trust. 

Now, my friends, I shall trespass no longer by 
these remarks, but give you some few observations 
how you should conduct yourself at table, when at 
meals. Make it your study always to be clean at 
meal times ; never talk much while eating ; be po- 
lite and help all round before yourself. Never be- 
gin any vulgar conversation at such or any time. I 
have known some servants that were so rude, and 
void of all discretion, as to use the most vulgar 
conversation during meal times, which was a dis- 
grace to any being, and ought not to be suffered in 
a gentleman's family. Always behave respectfully, 
and never stand up before the others are done, un- 
less your business calls you. When done dinner, 
put by your chair ; never leave your things about 
for others to wait on you, for in this station every 



76 

one should attend to their own business. When 
done, you should always offer up a blessing for the 
good you have received ; for we are ordered by 
the Lord to receive every thing with thanksgiving 
and prayer ; therefore my friends, I sincerely hope 
that these examples will become beneficial to all 
who may study them. I shall now conclude 
these remarks and instructions, and give some 
hints to servants in general on their dress. 



HINTS TO HOUSE SERVANTS ON THEIR 
DRESS. 

Now, David, in the first place I shall address 
myself particularly to you, and give jou a few 
hasty remarks on the propriety of servants in dres- 
sing, &c. There is no class of people that should 
dress more neat and clean than a house servant, 
because he is generally exposed to the eyes of the 
public •, but his dress, though neat and tidy, should 
not be foppish or extravagant. A man that lives 
in a family should have two or three changes of 
light clothes for the summer, that he may always 
appear neat and clean. You should likewise have 
a good suit of clothes on purpose to wear while 
waiting on dinner, as there is nothing that looks 
more creditable than to see a servant well dressed 
at dinner. It is a credit to himself and the family 
whom he has the honour to serve. Make it a rule 
always to brush your dinner suit, when your morn- 
ing's work is done, and every thing put in order, 
that you may have them ready when you want to 
dress for dinner. 



77 



You should never wear thick shoes or boots in 
the parlour, or waiting on dinner. You should 
have a pair of light pumps, on purpose for din- 
ner, and a pair of slippers is the best thing you can 
wear in the morning, as they are easy to your feet 
while running about and doing your morning's work; 
likewise you are free from making a noise to dis- 
turb the family before they are up. You must al- 
ways be very clean in your person, and wash your 
face and comb your hair, &c. 

In the next place wash your feet at least three 
times per week, as in summer time your feet gener- 
ally perspire ; a little weak vinegar and water, or 
a little rum is very good for this use, as it is a stimu- 
lant, and there is no danger of taking cold after 
washing in either. Servants being generally on .the 
foot throughout the day, it must cause perspiration, 
which makes a bad smell, which would be a very 
disagreeable thing to yourself and the company on 
whom you wait. 

Now, David, there is one thing more that I must 
caution you against, that is, running in debt for fine 
clothes, &c. There are many servants that practise 
this to their utter ruin, all through pride and vanity, 
striving even to outvie their master. This is a very 
unbecoming thing in a servant, and no one would 
do so but an ignorant person and one that does not 
know his place : because, in the first place, his cir- 
cumstances do not allow it. I never find fault 
with a servant to dress well, and always to be clean 
and tidy, but he should not be extravagant, or go 
above his ability. I have known several servants 
who dressed so foppish that it looked quite ridicu- 
lous, and myself have seen those very same servants 
afterwards in a perfect state of poverty, and with- 



78 

out a dollar to help themselves. Consider, my young 
friend, that when sickness comes on, and no friends 
or relations to look to you, and no money laid up to 
support you, then what good does all your fine 
clothes ? does not your pride then make you repent 
of your folly, and wish that you had been more 
careful of your money ; instead of spending it to 
support your ignorant pride and folly ? It absolute- 
ly makes me think of the fable of the frog and the 
ox ; where the poor conceited frog puffed himself 
up, thinking to be as large as the ox, but at length 
he burst. This was all through pride 'and folly ; 
and this I compare to a servant that strives to be in 
fashion, and spend all his money ; then sickness 
comes on, and he sinks in poverty and death, and is 
no more thought of than the poor frog. But, 
my young friend, I sincerely hope that this never 
may be the case with you, nor any other that has to 
earn a living in this capacity; for the holy scrip- 
ture says, that " the servant must not be above his 
master ;" therefore I hope you will follow those 
examples. 



REMARKS ON ANSWERING THE BELLS. 

This is a part of a house servant's business, that 
requires a great deal of attention. Whenever your 
parlour or drawing room bell rings, lose no time in 
going to answer it; never wait to finish what you 
are about, and leave the bell unanswered ; you 
never should let the bell ring twice if you possibly 
can avoid it, for it seems to be a great part of neg- 



79 

ligence in a servant ; besides, it is an aggravating 
thing to those who ring twice or thrice without be- 
ing answered. In the next place, when your front 
door bell rings, you must always step quick to an- 
swer it, before it rings the second time; because 
perhaps it might be some person of distinction, or 
on some business of great importance to your em- 
ployers, wherein no one coming to answer the bell, 
they might go away and think that the family are 
not at home. 

In the next place, you should never admit any 
person or persons into the parlour or drawing room, 
without first announcing their names to your mis- 
tress or master. This you can readily find out by 
saying, " What name shall I say, ma'am ?" or "sir?" 
Therefore by this way you will find out whether 
your employers wish to see them or not. If not, 
tell them your mistress, or master, or whoever they 
wish to see, are engaged, &:c. in a polite and civil 
manner. 

Now, my friend, I have brought you so far as to 
be able to understand the whole duty of an house 
servant perfectly. I shall give you in the following 
pages, all the useful receipts that are requisite for 
a house servant to understand, and to enable him 
to do every part of his work with expedition and 
to perfection. 

All those receipts that I am going to lay before 
you and the public, are of my own long experience, 
which I can recommend to be genuine, as to every 
thing they are set to ; and you will find them to be 
genuine. 



RECEIPTS, 



1. TO MAKE THE BEST LIQUID BLACKING. 

Take two quarts ofsoiir beer or porter, 'the latter 
is preferable, eight ounces of bestivorj black, three 
ouncesof molasses, one ounce of sugar candy, half 
an ounce of gum-arabic, half an ounce of oil of vit- 
riol, and one ounce of sweet oil. Let your ivory 
black be well rubbed, to become fine and free from 
lumps ; mix the oil with the black, and dissolve the 
gum-arabic in some warm beer, then mix all the 
ingredients well together, keep it corked tight, in a 
jar or what you choose to put it in, shake it well 
three or four times each day for two or three days, 
then it will be fit for use : and if used as the direc- 
tions are given in boot and shoe cleaning, it will 
produce a brilliant and jet black, and is not in the 
least any way injurious to leather. 



2. — TO MAKE BOOTS OR SHOES WATER PROOF. 

Take one pint of drying oil, two ounces of good 
yellow wax, two ounces of turpentine, (not spirits of 
turpentine,) half an ounce of burgundy pitch, melt 
all these ingredients carefully over some hot coals, 
be careful that the blaze does not get to it, or it will 
catch afire ; when they are all melted well togeth- 



81 

er, take a painter's brush, or a piece of flannel tied 
on the end of a stick, then apply your stuff on the 
boots or shoes as hot as possible without burning 
them, set them some distance from the fire, and 
when they become dry, apply the stuff on again as 
before, and soon until the leather will become sat- 
urated and hold no more ; then put them by for 
some time before you use them, until they become 
dry and elastic; this method will make them im- 
penetrable to wet or snow, and make them soft and 
of much more durability. 



3. TO CLEAN MAHOGANY TURNITURE. 

Take oae pound, or whatever quantity you 
choose, of best yellow wax, scrape it very fine, then 
put it into a pot or pipkin for that purpose, pour 
over it as much spirits of turpentine as will cover it 
well ; you must let it stand 24 hours before you use 
it. If your furniture is to be perfectly clear and 
light coloured, you may not add any thing to it. 
But if it is required to be of a dark colour, you may 
add to it half an ounce of rose pink, or alkanet 
root in fine powder; mix them well together; and 
with a soft brush, or piece of flannel, rub quite even 
over the tables, or whatever furniture you are go- 
ing to clean; rub quick and even, and polish off 
with a piece of flannel, and an old silk handker- 
chief afterwards. 



4. — FURNITURE OIL FOR MAHOGANY, 

Take one pint of cold strained linseed oil, half 
an ounce ofalkanet root, half an ounce of rose pink, 
8 



82 

put them into a bottle or jar, shake it up well to- 
gether. It will be fit for use in twenty-four hours ; 
you must be very careful when putting it on your 
furniture; apply it on with a piece of woollen cloth 
or flannel, and put it very even over your furni- 
ture, rub it quick and hard, until it is perfectly 
worked in, then polish off with linen cloths, and 
you will soon have a beautiful polish ; you must be 
careful and rub the edges of your tables very 
clean, that the ladies or gentlemen may not get 
their clothes soiled. 



5. — ITALIAN VARNISH, MOST SUPERB FOR FUR- 
NITURE. 

Melt one part of virgin wax (white) in eight 
parts of oil petroleum, lay a light coat of this very 
even over your furniture while warm, you may 
put it on with a badger's brush ; let it stand for ten 
or fifteen minutes, then polish off with a piece of 
coarse soft cloth or flannel, and finish with an old 
silk handkerchief. -Inexperienced servants should 
be very careful how they apply any receipt at first, 
they should always make the first experiment on 
some article of little value. 



6. — ITALIAN POLISH FOR GIVING FURNITURE A 
BRILLIANT LUSTRE. 

First, melt one quarter of a pound of best yellow 
wax, and one ounce of black rosin well pounded to 
powder, put them into a pipkin, or something else 



83 

for that purpose, then pour over them, by degrees, 
two ounces spirits of turpentine; then mix it well 
together and cover it close for use. You may ap- 
ply this on your furniture with a piece of soft wool- 
len cloth, or some new flannel, be careful and put 
it on even and light, finish off with a piece of old 
silk or a handkerchief; in a few applications this 
will produce a most brilliant and hard polish, and 
is not so liable to be stained by the heat of the 
dishes, as any other polish now in use, but looks as 
beautiful as the finest varnish. 



7. — TO TAKE INK STAINS OUT OF MAHOGANY. 

Dilute one teaspoonful of oil of vitriol in one 
tablespoonful of soft water, apply it to the parts 
affected, with a small piece of red flannel, rub rath- 
er light and quick until the spot disappears, then 
wash off" with a little milk; rub quick until dry, 
then apply your polish, &c. Spirits of salts will 
answer the same purpose. 



8. — AN EXCELLENT ARTICLE FOR TABLES, AFTER 
PARTIES, &:C. 

Take one pint of milk, one ounce of spirits of 
turpentine, two dessert spoonfuls of sweet oil, mix 
them well together, put the mixture into a bottle for 
use. When your tables are very dirty and stained 
with wine and fruit, after a party, &c. shake up 
your mixture and pour some out into an old sau- 



r^mm 



84 

cer, or any thing yon may have for that purpose, 
dip into it a piece of flannel, and wash your tables 
quick and even all over, then dry and polish off 
with some old linen cloths. By this method, your 
tables will become a fine light colour, and will 
look most beautiful when cleaned oiF with your 
furniture oil, polish, or varnish. 



9. — TO TAKE THE BLACK OFF THE BARS OF POLISHED 

STEEL GRATES. 

Take one pound of soft soap, one quart of rain 
or soft water, put them in a sauce pan and boil it 
down to one pint, then take some of this jelly and 
mix it with some emery, No. 3. and apply it to the 
bars of your grate with a piece of coarse cloth. 
Rub hard and quick, and it will remove the black 
in a iew minutes. 



10. — TO POLISH THE BRIGHT BARS OF POLISHED 
STEEL "GRATES, OR FIRE IRONS. 

Take some rotten-stone finely powdered, mix 
with it some spirits of turpentine, one teaspoonful 
of oil of vitriol, one tablespoonful of sweet oil ,• mix 
all well together, and apply it with a piece of 
coarse woollen cloth to the bars of your grate; 
rub hard and quick, wipe hard with old linen or 
cotton cloths, and polish with some dry rotten-stone 
and a piece of leather. 



85 



11. — THE BEST WAY TO CLEAN A POLISHED 
STEEL GRATE. 

After you have removed the black from off the 
bar, take one ounce of crocus, one tablespoonfulof 
sweet oil, mix well together, then add spirits of wine 
or Hollands gin, by degrees, until your mixture is 
to the consistency of paint, then apply it to your 
grate or fire irons, hard and quick, with a piece of 
coarse woollen cloth ; wipe off with old linen or 
cotton cloth, and polish with dry whiting and leath- 
er. This receipt, if properly applied, gives a most 
brilliant polish, and repairs brightness of steel, and 
stands the fire much better than any now in use. 



12. — FOR THE BLACK PARTS OR INNER HEARTH 
OF A GRATE. 

Take some best black lead finely powdered, add 
to it the whites of three eggs well beaten, then pour 
into it some sour beer, or porter, the latter is pre- 
ferable, mix it well together, to the consistency of 
liquid blacking, then these ingredients must be sim- 
mered over some hot coals for twenty minutes ; 
vfhtn cold, pour it into a junk bottle for use; apply 
it on your grate with a soft brush, and polish off 
quick in the same manner as you would a boot. 
This will give a beautiful polish, and hold for some 
time, by dusting it off in the morning, after you 
make your fire, with an old cloth, and then with 
your hard brush. 
8* 



86 



13. — ANOTHER EXCELLENT BLACK MIXTURE FOR 
THE SAME. 

Take some good fine black lead finely powder- 
ed, mix with three sour apples beat up to a paste, 
then pour on some good vinegar till it is to the 
consistency of blacking, and apply it in the same 
manner as the preceding receipt; this will give a 
beautiful polish. 



15. A BEAUTIFUL SECRET TO CLEAN BRASS OR 

COPPER. 

Dissolve in one quart of rain or soft water, one 
ounce of oxalic acid, shake it well up together, then 
add half an ounce of butter of antimony ; bottle it 
and cork close for use. This composition will not 
soil any thing it touches, it is excellent for cleaning 
the brass on bureaus, or the brass on the front door, 
&c. It will likewise take stains out of Mahogany ; 
this must be applied with a piece of mantle cloth, 
or white flannel is preferable as it is soft ; wipe off 
quick with a soft linen cloth, and polish with leath- 
er. This will stand the heat of the fire better than 
any method in use, and is clean for the hands, or 
any thing it touches. Always shake it up before use. 



15. — TO GIVE BRITANNIA METAL A BEAUTIFUL 
POLISH. 

Take half a pound of lump whiting, as it is free 
from grit or sand, scrape it and roll it into fine povv- 



87 

der, then add to it one wine glass full of sweet oil, 
and one tablcspoonful of soft soap.; mix these well 
together, then add by degrees, some New-England 
rum, or spirits of wine, to the consistency of cream. 
Apply it to the article with a soft sponge or piece 
of flannel, quick and even ; wipe otT with a piece 
of old linen or cotton cloth, dust over some dry 
whiting and polish with leather. 



15. ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL POLISH FOR BLACK 

GRATES. 

Take the whites of six eggs, beat them up to a 
froth, then add half a pound of black lead, mix well 
together, then add spirits of turpentine until it is to 
the consistency of liquid blacking; apply it with a 
brush as you would black a boot. Polish with a 
hard brush, and it will become a brilliant polish. 



17. TO MAKE THE BEST PLATE POWDER. 

Take half a pound of chalk, scrape it and roll it 
into powder, then sift it through a fine sieve, then 
mix into it half an ounce of quicksilver ; when well 
mixed, add two ounces of hartshorn balls in fine 
powder, then mix all extremely well together. To 
use this, take some of this powder and apply it lo 
your plate with your naked hand, observing to rub 
it well and even all over; then polish off" with your 
leather ; or take some of the powder and work it 
into your shammy leather, and rub your plate per- 



^^ 



88 

fectly well and even, and polish as the other. 
The best way to use this is to make it wet, as you 
can apply it more even, and is much the safest way 
for new beginners; to wet this properly, take some 
spirits of wine and wet it till it becomes to the 
consistency of cream, then take a piece of soft 
sponge, and rub your plate well and even all over. 
Wipe off with your leather and polish with a clean 
leather ; this will give your plate a most beautiful 
lustre. Once a week is enough to clean with this 
powder, hot soap suds must be used at other times. 



18. ANOTHER WAY, MOST SUPERB, TO CLEAS PLATE. 

Dissolve in one quart of rain or soft water, one 
ounce of prepared hartshorn powder, mix it well 
together, and put it into a saucepan on some hot 
coals, so as to be scalding hot, then put into it as 
much plate as the vessel may hold, that they may 
be covered, let it boil a little, then take it out and 
drain it over a saucepan, and let it dry before the 
fire, then put in some more, and so on until you 
have it all done; then put in some clean linen 
rags, and leave them to soak up all the water ; 
these will be excellent to clean the plates of doors 
or any kind of brasses. Polish your silver when 
dry, with soft leather. 



19. Af^OTHER EXCELLENT PLATE POWDER, BY 

J. R. W. LONDON. 

Take one ounce of zinc, melt it in an iron ladle, 
then put to it two ounces of quicksilver, then turn 



89 

this mixture out on some strong brown paper, pound 
and roll it fine, then pound and sift two pounds of 
best cake whiting, mix them well together, then 
mix in half an ounce of good vermilion, rub and 
mix them well up together. If you choose to use 
it wet, add to some of the powder spirils of wine, 
sufficient to make it the thickness of cream ; rub 
your plate well and even with a piece of soft sponge 
dipped in this mixture, and polish off with your 
shammy leather. This powder, if properlj' made 
and used, will give a most brilliant and elegant 
lustre to silver, &c. 



20. TO CLEAN PLATED ARTICLES OF ALL DESCRIP- 
TIONS. 

Take an ounce of killed quicksilver, this you 
may get at the apothecary's, mix with this half a 
pound of best cake whiting pounded and sifted, 
then dried before you put in the quicksilver. When 
dry, mix these well together, and put the powder 
into a bottle for use ; when your plated things want 
cleaning, take a little of this powder and wet it 
with some spirits of wine, or New-England rum, and 
rub the articles lightly over with a soft sponge. 
Once a fortnight is sufficient for plated ware to be 
cleaned with this powder. Good hot and strong 
soap suds is the best to use for plated ware, the 
rest of the time, and to be wiped quick out of the 
hot suds, with soft cloths, and polished after with 
your shammy leather, 



90 



21. — TO CLEAN JAPANNED TEA AND COFFEE URNS. 

Take one ounce of crocus, and half an ounce of 
rotten-stone, pound and mix them well together, 
then sift it, let this mixture be a little darker than 
the urns. You need not use rotten-stone if you 
can get the crocus powder dark enough. Clean 
your urns with this powder, as directed for clean- 
ing plate, &,c. 



22. TO PRESERVE IRON OR STEEL FROM RUSTING. 

Take a piece of mutton suet, the skin part that 
is over the kidneys is the best for this purpose; rub 
the bars of your grate or fire irons well over with 
this, then take some fresh unslacked lime, put it 
into a piece of muslin and dust it well over whatev- 
er you have to preserve. By this method you 
may preserve iron or steel for many months, and 
no damp can penetrate to them. Fire arms should 
he kept well wrapped up in baize, or paper, and 
laid by in a dry place. This is an excellent way 
to preserve best knives that you wish to lay by for 
any length of time, or that are to be exported. 



23. — TO TAKE RUST OUT OF STEEL, &C. 

Rub your steel that is rusty well over with a 
piece of flannel dipped in salad oil, no other oil 
will answer, as there generally is water in all other 
kinds. When you have rubbed them well over with 



91 

the oil, then shake a little hot slacked lime over 
thera and let them lay in a dry place for 48 hours ; 
then take some fresh unslacked lime finely powder- 
ed, and rub quick and hard until the rust disap- 
pears ; then polish off with dry whiting, or crocus, 
and shammy leather. This is a most excellent 
plan, if only properly done, as is here directed. 



24. — TO BLACKEN THE TRONT OP STONE CHIMNEY 
PIECES. 

Mix oil, varnish, spirits of turpentine, and lamp- 
black, thin it to the consistency of thin paint, wash 
the stone very clean with hot soap suds, sponge it 
off with clean warm water, then when perfectly dry, 
take a painter's brush and put on a very smooth 
coat, let that dry^ then put on another, observe to 
sift the lampblack before used, and this will give a 
most beautiful appearance, and look like varnish. 



25. — ANOTKER EXCELLENT WAY TO CLEAN BLACK 
GRATES. 

Boil one quarter of a pound of best black lead 
in one piutof beer or porter, add one tablespoonful 
of good soft soap; when it boils, take it off the 
fire, and when you are going to polish your grate, 
brush off all the dust from it, and with a painter's 
brash apply this mixture quite even on the grate, 
then polish it off quick with a hard brush, and you 
will have a beautiful appearance to your grate. 



92 



26.--TO CLEAN MIRRORS AND LOOKING GLASSES. 

Clean ofFthe fly Stains and other soils, with a 
piece of soft flannel dipped in gin, wipe dry with 
soft linen cloths, and polish off" with a soft dry flan- 
nel and powder blue 5 finish with a silk handker- 
chief; this is an excellent way to clean all kinds 
of looking glasses, &c. 

The author had this receipt from one of the 
largest looking glass manufacturers in London. 



27.— TO MAKE A BEAUTIFUL BLACK VARNISH. 

Take gum lac four ounces, sanderach and black 
rosin, of each one ounce, pulverise all separately ; 
dissolve the rosin in a sufficient quantity of spirits 
of wine, then add the sanderach ; as soon as dis- 
solved, add the powder of gum lac ; mix them all 
well together, and strain the mixture through a thin 
linen cloth. The black colour is to be given by 
mixing into it drachms of ivory black. 



28. TO GIVE SILVER A BEAUTIFUL POLISH. 

Scrape very fine four ounces of good white soap, 
pour on it one pint of rain or soft water, scalding 
hot, dissolve in that water half an ounce of wine ley 
dried in cakes,(this you can get at the apothecaries) 
and the same quantity of pearl ashes ; mix them 
all well together, apply it with a sponge on your 



93 



silver, and wash off in hot soap suds, and dry off 
with hot cloths, which you must have hung be- 
fore the fire for that purpose ; afterwards polish 
with your siiammy leather. 



29. AN EXCELLENT MASTICK FOR MENDING GLASS, 

CHINA, StC. 

Take whites of eggs, soft curd cheese, and 
quicklime, of each an equal quantity in weight, 
then begin and beat them all well together until 
the mastick becomes quite smooth ; this may be 
used in most all kinds of ware ; it will cement 
broken glass, so as to stand fire or hot water with- 
out having the smallest effect on the part cement- 
ed, but stand like new. 



30. A WASH TO REVIVE OLD DEEDS, OR OTHER 

AVRITINGS. 

Boil gall nuts in white wine, and steep a sponge 
in this solution, then pass it smoothly over the old 
writings, &c. and they will appear directly as new 
as when first wrote. 



31. AN EXCELLENT WAY TO PREVENT ELIES FROM 

SETTLING ON PICTURES, OR MAKING DIRT ON 

FURNITURE. 

Take a large bunch of leeks and soak them in a 
pail of soft water for 24 hours, then squeeze the 
leeks out of the water, let it stand for half an 
hour, then strain it off and bottle for use ; in the 
fly season take a sponge and wash your pictures 
9 



94 



or any furniture whatever, with this solution, and 
the flies will never come near it, or make any dirt 
on it. This is a valuable receipt for private fam- 
ilies, &c. 



32. TO REMOVE FLIES PROM ROOMS. 

Take half a teaspoonful of black pepper, in pow- 
der, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one table- 
spoonful of cream ; mix them well together, and 
place them in the room, on a plate, where the flies 
are troublesome, and they will soon disappear. 



33. — -TO RENDER OLD PICTURES AS PINE AS NEW. 

Boil in a new pipkin for the space of one quar- 
ter of an hour, one quarter of a pound of bril. or 
grey ash, and a little Genoa soap ; when it is luke- 
warm take a soft piece of sponge and pass it even 
all over your pictures ; when dry, pass over it 
very lightly some olive die, and in five minutes 
wipe it off with a piece of old silk, or soft linen 
cloth ; this will make your pictures look as well, 
and have as fine a gloss, as when new. 



34. A VARNISH WHICH SUITS ALL KINDS OF PIC- 
TURES AND PRINTS, AND MAKES THEM SHINE 
LIKE GLASS. 

Dilute one quarter of a pound of Venice turpen- 
tine in one gill of spirits of wine, if too thick, add 
some more spirits of wine, until of the consistency 
of milk, then lay one coat of this on the right side 
of the print or picture, and when dry it will shine 
like glass ; if not to your satisfaction, lay on anoth- 
er coat, and it will have a most brilliant effect. 



95 

35. TO TAKE INK-SPOTS OUT OF MAHOGANY. 

Take a piece of clean white flannel, dip it into 
some spirits of salts, apply it quick to the part af- 
fected, until removed, then wash it off with a little 
cream esf milk, and rub off dry ; don't let it stand 
too long on it. 



36.— A MOST DELICIOUS SALAD SAUCE, BY J. R. W. 

Take the yolks of four hard-boiled eggs, rub 
them through a sieve, and add to them one tea- 
spoonful of salt, mix well up, then add two table- 
spoonsful of made mustard, stir well up, then add 
by one spoonful at each time, six spoonsful of 
salad oil ; mix this well together until it becomes 
as smooth as mustard, then put in one teaspoon- 
fol of anchovy sauce, and one gill of cream or new 
milk, and stir well together; and last of all put in 
by degrees some good vinegar ; I don't state the 
quantity of this, as some is much stronger than 
others, this must lay in your own taste. Should 
you make it too sharp with vinegar, add one table- 
spoonful of fine white sugar in powder, this will 
soften it, and give it an excellent flavour. Bottle 
it for use. This will keep for any length of time, 
in the hottest weather ; and is excellent with any 
kind of salad or boiled slaw, and is a fine relish 
with fish. Shake it well up before you put it on 
your salad. 



37. A GREAT SECRET TO MIX MUSTARD, BY M. B. 

OF LONDON. 

Take one quart of water that corned beef has 
been boiled in, skim off any fat that may remain, 



96 

then strain it, and when cool put it into a junk bot- 
tle, then grate some horseradish, about two dessert 
spoonsful, and put into the bottle and shake it well 
up, and cork it tight. When you want to mix 
your mustard, take whatever quantum you think 
necessary, but you should never mix more than 
half your mustard pot full at once, as it is better 
when first mixed ; first put the flour of mustard 
in a tea cup, add to it half a teaspoonful of salt, 
mix well together, then put in your liquor, by 
degrees, that you may not make it too thin, 
mix extremely well together, until it becomes 
quite smooth ; this method of mixing mustard is 
absolutely the best I have ever met with, as it 
much surpasses any other, both in strength and 
flavour. 



38. TO EXTRACT OIL FROM BOARDS. 

Make a strong ley of pearl ashes and soft wa- 
ter, then add some fresh unslacked lime, stir it 
extremely well together, then let it stand for fif- 
teen minutes, and bottle it off, and cork it close. 
Before you use it, have some water ready to low- 
er it, as it generally is very powerful ; then scour 
the part affected, and rinse it with clean soft water. 
Don't let the liquor lay too long on the part af- 
fected, or it will remove the colour from the 
board, &c. therefore you must do it with care and 
expedition. 

49. TO COLOUR ANY KIND OF LIQ,U0R. 

Take, in coarse powder, half an ounce of santu- 
lum rubium, put it into a bottle of a quart measure. 



97 



then pour on the powder three half pints of spirits 
of wine, and in five or six hours it will be a very 
high tincture, and will be fit to give a colour to 
any kind of liquid that you choose, by pouring 
some of it into the liquor and shaking it very well. 



40, TO MAKE LIQ,UID CURRANT JAM, OF THE 

riRST Q,UALITT. 

Take four pounds of clean picked currants, put 
aside two and a half pounds of them, and squeeze 
the remainder; then put this in a preserving pan, 
with four pounds of sugar; when come to a syrup, 
put in the remainder of the whole currants along 
with the one and a half pounds of juice, and boil it 
to the greatest perfection. 



41. A SECRET AGAINST ALL KINDS OF SPOTS ON 

CLOTH OR SILK, OF ANY COLOUR. 

Take a water impregnate with alkaline salt, 
black soap, and bullock's 'gall ; this composition 
will take out any kind of spots from any kind of 
cloth, silk, &c. Rinse off with soft warm water. 



43.— KOW TO MAKE ALL KINDS OF SYRUPS, WITH 
ALL SORTS OF FLOWERS. 

Heat in a pan half a pint of water, then put into 
it sugar to the quantity of flowers; boil, skim, and 
thicken it to a proper consistency ; when done, 
put it into a glazed pot or pan and cover it over 
with a linen cloth, through which pour the syrup 
, 9* 



98 

upon the flowers; these being deadened, put alto- 
gether again into the same piece of linen, and 
squeeze thera ; strain it into another vessel, then 
bottle and cork it close ; the quantity of sugar 
requisite for this syrup is generally one pound and 
a half to every four ounces of flowers. Observe 
that all kinds of flowers must be picked and clean- 
ed of their cups and stems, and nothing but their 
leaves made use of. 



43 TO MAKE AN EXCELLENT CURRANT JELLY. 

Dissolve in water four pounds of loaf sugar to a 
strong syrup, then take four pouuds of clean pick- 
ed currants, then put them into the syrup, and 
boil so as to have them covered with the bubbles : 
after six minutes such a boil, take the pan from 
the fire, and pour the contents into a sieve, strain 
off" all the liquor, then put this liquor again into 
the pan, and when you want to try it take a little 
with the skimmer and put it on a plate, if it con- 
geals as it cools, it is fit to pot. 

N. B. Those who want to spare sugar and 
have a great quantity of syrup or jelly, at a small 
expence, may apply only four pounds of sugar to 
six pounds of currants, only observing to do it 
rather more than in the manner above ; and by 
this method you will save a great deal of expence 
in making a large quantity of jelly. 



44. A MOST DELICIOUS LEMONADE, TO BE MADE 

THE DAY BEFORE WANTED. 

Take and pare two dozen of good sized lemons 
as thin as 3^ou possibly can ; put eight of the I'inds 



99 

into three quarts of hot water, but not boiling, 
cover it close over for four hours, then rub some 
sugar to the rinds to attract the essence, and put 
it into a bowl, and into which squeeze the juice 
of the lemons; to which add one pound and a 
half of fine sugar, then put the water to the above, 
and three quarts of boiling milk, mix and run 
through a jelly bag until clear; bottle it, if you 
choose, and cork close ; this will be most excel- 
lent, and will Jceep. 



45. — LEMONADE THAT HAS THE APPEARANCE 
AND FLAVOUR OF JELLY. 

Pare two Seville oranges, and six lemons, as thin 
as possible, steep them for four hours in one quart 
of hot water, then boil one pound and a quarter of 
loaf sugar in three pints of water, skim it, and then 
add the two liquors to the juice of six good or- 
anges, and twelve lemons : stir the whole well 
together, and run it through a jelly bag until clear, 
then add a little orange water, if you like the fla- 
vour, and if wanted, you may add more sugar ; if 
corked tight it will keep a long time. 



47. — TO MAKE RASPBERRY VINEGAR MOST DELI- 
CIOUS. 

Put one quart of clean picked raspberries into a 
large bowl, pour on them one quart of best. white 
wine vinegar, the next day strain off the liquor on 
one pound of fresh raspberries, and the following 
day do the same, but do not squeeze the fruit, but 



100 

drain the liquor as dry as possible from the fruit ; 
the last time pass it through a cloth wet in vinegar, 
to prevent any waste, then put it into a stone jar, 
with a pound of sugar to every pint of juice, let 
your sugar be in large lumps, as it is much better; 
when dissolved stir it up well, put your jar in a 
pot of hot water, let it simmer, skim well and 
when cold bottle and cork close. 



47. — TO MAKE BEST WINE VINEGAR IN ONE HOUR. 

Take some rye flour and dilute it with some of 
the best and strongest vinegar you can find, make 
a thin round cake, bake it in the oven, then pound 
it into fine powder, then wet it as before, and bake 
again ; repeat this operation three or four times, 
then if you hang the last made cake while hot, by 
a cord, in a cask of wine, you will have most ex- 
cellent vinegar in one hour. 



48. AN EXCELLENT PREPARATION FOR VINEGAR. 

Take white cinnamon, long pepper, and Cyprus, 
of each one ounce, round pepper half an ounce, 
and two nutmegs •, pulverize each article separate, 
and put them in so many different bags, then 
take five quarts of the best vinegar, put into each 
quart one of the bags, and boil separately each 
quart for three minutes, and so on until all are 
done, observing to keep each quart and bag by it- 
self in different vessels ; then boil separately six 
quarts of best wine, then season your cask by rins- 
ing it out with vinegar, then pour in your boiled 
» 



101 

wines and vinegars and then half fill your cask 
with the worst spoiled wine, and stop it up until 
the vinegar is made, then draw off what you 
please, but fill up again with the same quantity 
that you draw off, of your bad wine ; by this pro- 
cess you can draw off and fill again for a number 
of times, and it will be a most excellent flavoured 
vinegar. 



49. — A DRY POET ABLE VINEGAR, OR VINAIGRE EN 
POUDRE, 

Wash clean in warm water one pound of white 
tartar, dry it and powder it as fine as possi})le, wet 
this with the best sharp vinegar, dry it an oven 
after the bread comes out, or before the fire, 
powder and wet it as before, and so on for ten or 
a dozen times, and you will have an excellent vin- 
egar powder that will turn water into vinegar; 
this is excellent for travelling parties to carry with 
them. 



50. — TO TURN GOOD WINE INTO VINEGAR IN 
THREE HOURS. 

Put into any quantity of wine you choose, say 
one gallon for the experiment, one red beet, and 
in three hours, it will be sour and true vinegar. 
By J. R. W. 

51. TO RESTORE THAT SAME WINE TO ITS FIRST 

TASTE. 

Take out the beet, and in its stead put a clean 
cabbage root, and it will return to its primary 
taste in the same space of time. 



102 



52 TO CORRECT A BAD TASTE OR SOURNESS IN 

WINE. 

Put into a clean linen bag one or two roots of 
wild horseradish cut in fine pieces, let it hang 
down through the bung hole into the wine, by a 
piece of twine, let it stay there for two days, then 
take that out, and put in another in the same man- 
ner, and repeat until the wine is perfectly restored. 



53, — TO PRESERVE GOOD WINE TO THE LAST. 

Take the bulk of your two fists of the inside 
bark of the alder tree, which is green, pour on it 
one pint of the best spirits of wine, let this infuse 
for three days, then strain it ofi" through a linen 
cloth, then pour this infusion into a hogshead of 
wine, this wine will keep for twelve years, or long- 
er, if wanted. 



54. TO RECOVER A PERSON FROM INTOXICATION. 

Make the person that is intoxicated drink a 
glass of vinegar, or a c-up of strong coffee without 
milk or sugar, or a glass of hot wine. Any of 
those articles are a most safe and quick remedy to 
recover a person from intoxication. 



25. TO MAKE RASPBERRY, STRAWBERRY, CHERRY, 

AND ALL KINDS Or WATERS. 

Take any quantity of the ripest raspberries, 
squeeze them through a linen cloth, to extract the 
juice from them, put this in a glass bottle uncork- 



103 

ed placed in the sun or on a stove until it is clear- 
ed down, then pour it gently into another bottle 
without disturbing the sediment, to half a pint of 
this put ©ne quart of water, and sugar to your 
taste, pour it from one vessel to the other, strain 
it, and put it in ice to cool, this will be a most de- 
licious cool drink in hot weather, and extremely 
safe in perspirations. 



56. LEMONADE WATER OF A DELICIOUS FLAVOUR. 

Dissolve one pound of loaf sugar in two quarts 
of water, grate over it the yellow of five large 
lemons, then mix in twelve drops of essential oil 
of sulphur, when going to mix your liquid, cut 
thin some slices of lemons, and keep it cool and it 
will be most excellent. 



57. ANOTHER EXCELLENT LEMONADE, BY R. R., 

THE AUTHOR OF THIS BOOK. 

Take one gallon of water, put to it the juice of 
ten good lemons, and the zeasts of six of them 
likewise, then add to this one pound of sugar, and 
mix it well' together, strain it through a fine strain- 
er, and put it in ice to cool; this will be a most 
delicious and fine lemonade. 



58. TO WHITEN IVORY THAT HAS BEEN SPOILED. 

Take some soft water, dissolve in it a sufficient 
quantity of rock alum, so as to render the water 
quite milky, then boil this liquor, then soak the 
handles of your knives, forks, &c. for one hour, 



L. 



104 

then take an old tooth brush and brush them well 
over, after which wrap them in a wet linen cloth 
to dry leisurely, otherwise it is apt to split. This 
is an excellent plan to whiten ivory. * 



69. — A COOLING CINNAMON WATER IN HOT WEATHER. 

Boil one gallon of water, pour it into a gallon 
demijohn, set this before the fire, then put into it 
twelve cloves, two ounces of whole cinnamon, then 
stop up your bottle and put it in a cool place ; 
when you want to mix your liquor, put half a pint 
into two quarts of water, with one quarter of a 
pound of sugar ; cool it in ice before you serve it, 
and it is a most wholesome and delicious drink as 
you can take in hot weather. 



60. — AN EXCELLENT GOOD RATIFIAj BY F. N. 

Into one quart of brandy pour half a pint of 
cherryjuice, as much of currant juice, as much of 
raspberry juice, add a few cloves, and some white 
pepper in grains, two grains of green coriander, 
and a stick or two of cinnamon, then pound the 
stones of the cherries, and put them in, wood and 
all. Add about twenty five or thirty kernels of 
apricots. Stop your demijohn close, and let it in- 
fuse for one month in the shade, shaking it five or 
six times in that time, at the end of which strain it 
through a flannel bag, then through a filtering pa- 
per, and then bottle it and cork close for use; 
you can make any quantity you choose, only by 
adding or increasing more brandy or other ingre- 
dients, &c. 



105 



61. A STRONG ANISE-SEED WATER. 

Take halt" a pint of the best essential spirits of 
anise-seoicls, put this into three quarts of the best 
brandy with one quart of boiled water; if not 
sweet enough, add some clarified sugar, and strain 
through a jelly bag, this it a most delicious and 
wholesome water, and a fine stomachic. 

62. TO TAKE OFF SPOTS OF ANY SORT, FROM 

ANY KIND OF CLOTH. 

Take half a pound of crude honey, the yolk of a 
new laid egg, and the bulk of a nut of aromatic 
salt, mix all well together, then put some on 
the spots ; having left it there awhile, then wash it 
off with clean water, and the spot will immediate- 
ly disappear. This receipt is of great importance 
to servants that have the care of their masters 
wardrobe, and in many other similar cases. 

63. A SECRET AGAINST OIL SPOTS, fec. 

Takq a piece of white soap, shave it very fine, 
put it into a junk bottle with rather a wide neck 
and mouth, half fill it with ley, then add to this the 
bulk of a nut of ammoniac salt, and two yolks of 
fresh eggs, cabbage juice and bullock's gall, of 
each half an ounce weight, and one ounce of salt 
of tartar in fine powder; cork your bottle close, 
and lay it in the sun for four days, after which it 
will be fit for use. You must apply this to the 
oil spot with a piece of white flannel, rub hard and 
quick, let it stand five or ten minutes afterwards, 
then rince off with clean soft water, and hang out 
to dry. 

10 



106 



64. TO RESTORE CARPETS TO THEIR EIRST BLOOM. 

Beat your carpets with your carpet rods until 
perfectly clean from dust, then if there be any ink 
spots take them out with a lemon, and if oil spots, 
take out as in the foregoing receipt, observing to 
rinse with clean water ; then take a hot loaf of white 
bread, split down the centre, having the top and 
bottom crust one on each half, with this rub your 
carpet extremely well over, then hang it out on 
or across a line with the right side out ; should the 
night be fine, leave it out all night, and if the 
weather be clear, leave it out for two or three 
such nights, then sweep it with a clean corn 
broom, and it will look as when first new. 



65. TO RESTORE TAPESTRIES TO THEIR FORMER 

BRIGHTNESS. 

Shake and dust your tapestries extremely well, 
then rub them well and even all over with white 
chalk, which you must leave on them for twenty- 
four hours ; then take a hair brush and brush ofFall 
the chalk, then apply all your chalk as before, 
and let them stand as before, after which, beat 
them well with a light rod, and afterwards brush 
them well and even with a soft clothes-brush, and 
this operation will make them look as bright and 
clear as if quite new. 

66. TO REVIVE THE COLOUR OF CLOTH. 

Pour one quart of soft water on one pound of 
burnt pot-ashes ; in twelve hours after pour it ofl^ 
in another vessel, then put in a handful of marsh 



107 

mallow leaves, with two bullocks' galls; boil these 
altogether until the leaves go to the bottom, then 
set this decoction in the sun for four days, after- 
wards take whatever colour you want, boil it with 
the cloth in the liquor, and let it soak in the liquor 
for twelve days, and the colour of the cloth will be 
restored, as prime as ever. 



67. TO TAKE SPOTS OUT OF WHITE CLOTHES. 

Boil in one pint of soft water for half an hour 
two ounces of alum, then put in two ounces of 
white soap scraped fine, and one pound of alum, 
let it boil for five minutes longer, then take it up 
and let it stand in the cool for four days, then bot- 
tle it, and with this composition you can take out 
any kind of spots whatever from white cloth. Ap- 
ply this with a piece of white flannel, rubbing the 
spots hard and quick, afterwards rinse with clean 
soft water, let the garment or piece of cloth hang 
out in the air one or two clear days and nights. 



Ob. A COMPOSITION OF SOAP THAT WILL TAKE 

OUT ALL KINDS OF SPOTS. 

Take one pound of Venitian white soap, six 
yolks of eggs, and one dessert-spoonful of salt in 
fine powder; incorporate these all well together, 
then add a sufficient quantity of the juice of the 
leaves of white beet ; then make up this composi- 
tion into small cakes, which dry in the shade. 
To apply these, first wet the spot over with clean 
soft water, then rub it over on both sides with the 
soap, then let it be rinsed in clean water, and the 
spots will disappear, hang out to dry, and after- 
wards brush it. 



I 



108 

69. TURKEY CEMENT FOR JOINING METALS, 

GLASS, &C. 

Dissolve six pieces of mastic as large as com- 
mon sized peas, in as much spirits of wine as is 
sufficient to make it into a liquid ; in another ves- 
sel dissolve as much isinglass which has previously 
soaked in soft water until soft, in brandy, as will 
make two ounces in weight of strong glue, then 
add two small pieces of ammonicum, which must be 
rubbed until dissolved, then beat all up together j 
when cool, put it into a phial and stop it close, 
when you want to use it put the phial into warm 
water not boiling, apply it with a thin piece of 
stick formed as a knife, for that purpose. 



70. TO PRESERVE THE BRIGHTNESS OP ARMS, hc 

Take some strong vinegar, that of Montpelier 
is best, dissolve in this some alum finely powdered, 
then rub the arms with this composition, keep 
them in a dry place, and they will keep bright for 
years. This is an excellent thing to preserve the 
brightness of polished steel grates, or fire irons, &c. 



71. TO REMOVE INK STAINS FROM CLOTH, PLAID, 

SILK OR WORSTED, &C. 

Take one pint of rain or other soft water, dis- 
solve in it half an ounce of oxalic, citric, or tartar- 
ic acid ; the half ounce will be sufficient to mix 
the pint strong enough, cork it very close and 
shake it well ; to use it, lay the part affected over 
a bowl of hot water, but not to touch the water, 
and let the steam evaporate through, then shako* 



109 

up the solution and dip a sponge into it, and rub 
well the part affected until the stain disappears, 
then hang it out in the sun, and this solution will 
not hurt the finest fabric. 

72 TO PRESERVE MILK FOR TEA, TO KEEP SIX 

MONTHS. 

Take as man}'' bottles as you wish to fill, wash 
and dry them very clean, then fill them right from 
the cows' teats ; after you have them all full, take 
some new corks which you have previously soak- 
ed in water, drive them as tight as possible, have 
the bottles so full that there may be no vacancy 
between the cork and milk, then tie them with 
pack-thread or wire, as you would porter; when 
you pack them by, put the bottles with their neck 
down, and bottom upwards. 

N. B. When you first cork them, put some 
straw on the bottom of a boiler, then place your 
bottles on their bottoms on it, and fill up with cold 
water, make a fire, and when it begins to boil, take 
the fire from under the boiler, and let it cool down. 
When cool, take them out, and pack as above, in 
straw or saw dust. I have frequently kept milk 
for six months, and it was as fresh as when first 
bottled. This is excellent for carrying to sea. 

73. TO PRESERVE APPLES FOR THE YEAR ROUND. 

Put them in casks in layers of dry sand ; let the 
sand be perfectly dry, and each layer being cover- 
ed keeps them from the air, from moisture, from 
frost, and from perishing, as the sand absorbs 
their moisture, which generally perishes them ; 
10* 



. no 

pippins have often been kept in this manner until 
mid-summer, and were as fresh then as when 
put in. 



74. TO LOOSEN STOPPERS OF DECANTERS THAT 

ARE CONGEALED. 

Put two or three drops of sweet oil round the 
Stopper close to the mouth of the decanter, then 
lay it a little distance from the fire, with the mouth 
of the bottle towards the heat, when the decanter 
gets warm, and the oil soaked in, take a piece of 
wood with a thick cloth wrapped around the heavy 
end of it for this purpose, then strike ai one side, 
and then at the other, but not very hard, by this 
process 3'ou will soon take it out ; or instead of 
putting the decanters before the fire, put them in 
some boiling water, and pound them as above. 



75. TAKING STAINS OUT OF BLACK CLOTH, CRAPE, 

OR SILK. 

Boil a large handful of fig leaves, in two quarts 
of rain or soft water until reduced to one pint, 
then squeeze the leaves, and put the liquor into a 
bottle, cork it tight. The way to apply this is to 
rub the article with a piece of sponge dipped in 
the liquor, and the slain will immediately dis- 
appear. 



76. TO KNOW WHETHER A BED IS DAMP OR NOT, 

WHEN TRAVELLING. 

After the bed is warmed, put a glass tumbler 
between the sheets, and if the bed is damp, the 



Ill 

tumbler will show drops of wet on the inside. 
This rule ought to be properly attended to, and es- 
pecially when you are travelling with a family, as 
it is your duty to be as attentive to them as 
possible. 

77. TO MAKE THE BEST GINGER BEEK. 

Take one ounce of powdered ginger, half an 
ounce of cream tartar, one large lemon cut in sli- 
ces, two pounds of loaf sugar, and one gallon of 
soft water, let them be well mixed together, let 
them simmer over the fire for half an hour, then 
put in one table-spoonful of yeast, and let it stand 
to ferment, and when done, boUle it and tie the 
corks with twine, put it in a cool place, and it will 
be fit for use in five or six days. This is delicious 
in hot weather. 



78. TO MAKE EXCELLENT SPRUCE BEER. 

Take eight gallons of boiling water, add to it 
eight gallons of cold, mix with this sixteen pounds 
of molasses, and six table-spoonsful of best essence 
of spruce, and half a pint of good yeast ; keep your 
keg in a temperate place, let the bung-hole remain 
open for two days, after which stop it up tight, or 
bottle it off. it will be fit for use in a few days ; 
you can make any quantity you choose, by either 
adding or diminishing the ingredients, &c. 



79. TO MAKE A BEAUTIFUL FLAVOURED PUNCH. 

Take one dessert-spoonful of acid salt of lemon, 
half a pound of good white sugar, two quarts of 



112 

real boiling water, one pint of Jamaica rum, and 
half a pint of brandy, add some lemon peel or some 
essence of lemon, if agreeable, four drops of the 
essence is enough ; then pour it from one pitcher 
to another twice or thrice to mix it well. This 
will be a most delicious and fine flavoured punch. 



80. TO CEMENT ANY KIND OF BROKEN GLASS. 

Take some isinglass, dissolve it in a sufficient 
quantity of spirits of wine, this will form a trans- 
parent glue that will unite glass so that the frac- 
ture will scarcely be perceived ; be very careful 
in handling the spirits of wine, for fear that it 
might boil into the fire, for this would be very 
dangerous. 



81. A BLACK VARNISH FOR STRAW OR CHIP HATS. 

Take half an ounce of best black varnish seal- 
ing wax, rectified spirits of wine two ounces, pow- 
der the sealing wax and put it into a four ounce 
phial, digest them in a sand heat, or near a fire, 
until the wax is quite dissolved ; lay it on the hat 
when warm, with a soft paint brush, be careful to 
lay it on very even. This gives straw or chip 
hats a fine stiffness and a beautiful glaze, which 
will resist all wet and storm. 



82. BLACKING FOR HARNESS THAT WILL NOT 

INJURE THE LEATHER. 

Take two pounds of hog's fat, one pound of best 
ivory black, mix them well together, then add 
spirits of turpentine to bring it to the consistence 



113 

of paint; apply it on your harness with a brush, in 
the same manner as blacking a boot, then polish 
off with another, and it will produce a beautiful 
jet black, and is a great preservation to the leath- 
er; almost all other compositions are injurious. 

S3. TO MAKE A STRONG PASTE FOR PAPER. 

Take two table-spoonsful of flour, stir it well to- 
gether to make it free from lumps, then add as 
much strong beer as will make it to a due consis- 
tency ; boil slow for twenty minutes, let it be cold 
before you use it. 

N. B. Common paste may be made of flour, 
water, and a little alum. To preserve paste from 
souring, rats, &c. add a little spirits of turpentine. 

84. A WATER THAT GILDS COPPER AND BRONZE. 

Dissolve equal quantities of green vitriol and 
ammoniac salt, in good double distilled vinegar, 
then evaporate the vinegar and put it in the re- 
tort to distil ; if in the product of your distillation 
you steep your metal, and after you have polished 
and made hot, it will come out perfectly well gilt. 

85. A WASH FOR GOLD, SILVER, SILK, OR ANY 

OTHER KIND OF EMBROIDERY OR STUFF WHATEVER. 

Take bullock's galls one pound, soft soap and 
honey of each three ounces, Florentine orris of 
the same quantity, in subtile powder, put all into a 
glass or china vessel, in which mix well to a paste 
and let it be exposed to the heat of the sun for the 
space of twelve days ; when you want to use it, 
make an infusion of bran boiled in soft water, and 
strained through a cloth, then smear the work 



114 

above with the paste, wherever it is soiled or dirty, 
and wash afterwards in this bran water, still renew- 
ing the above, until there is no alteration in its 
colour, then wipe the places with a clean cloth, 
and wrap them in a clean napkin and place in the 
sun to dry ; after which you may pass it through 
the polish press and the work will appear as when 
new. 



86. TO MAKE IRON AS BEAUTIFUL AND WHITE 

AS SILVER. 

Take ammoniac salt and quick lime in equal 
quantities, mix them well together, and dilute 
them in equal quantities of soft cold water, then 
take whatever piece of iron that you choose to 
make bright, heat it red hot, then steep it in the 
liquor prepared, and it will come out as beautiful 
and bright as silver. 



87. TO PRESERVE FURS OR WOOLLEN CLOTHES 

FROM MOTHS. 

Let the former be combed often while in use, 
and the latter be brushed and shaken, and when 
not wanted let them be dried and cool, then among 
them mix bitter apples, which you can buy at the 
apothecaries, put them in small muslin bags, and 
carefully wrap them in several folds of linen, turn- 
ing them up caj:efully at the ends and edges; put 
them by in a dry place. 

8&. TO DYE GLOVES TO LOOK LIKE YORK TAN. 

Put into half or one pint of soft water, half an 
ounce of best saffron, let the water be boiling, let 



117 



96. A SAFE Liq,UID TO TURN RED HAIR BLACK. 

Take black lead finely powdered, one ounce, 
ebony shavings one ounce ; mix these ingredients 
in one pint of soft water, boil for one hour; let it 
stand until fine, then bottle it for use. To apply 
this, wet the comb often, and the hair must be 
frequently combed; if a fine glossy black be re- 
quired, you must add two ounces of camphor. 



97. TO REFINE CIDER, FOR ONE BARREL. 

Take one pint of brandy, four ounces of rock 
alum, the whites of six eggs, half a pint of coarse 
sand, and two pounds of coarse sugar. 



98. TO CLARIFY STRONG OR TABLE BEER. 

Take a piece of chalk as big as a common tum- 
bler glass, and cut it in two pieces of equal size, 
put them into your beer through the bung hole, 
this wilWinswer for one barrel, and will cause the 
liquor to foment and become perfectly clear and 
fine. 



99. A CHEAP AND WHOLESOME BEER. 

Boil two ounces of hops, two ounces of pound- 
ed ginger, eight pounds of molasses, in four gal- 
lons of water, when it is cooled down to milk 
warm, add some yeast to ferment it. This makes 
a very wholesome and agreeable beer, and is 
not only cheaper, but wil] keep much longer thaa 
common beer. 
11 



118 



100. EXCELLENT JUMBLE BEER. 

Take four table-spoonfuls of ground ginger, one 
quart of molasses, ten gallons of water. N. B. 
First mix the ingredients in a little warm water, 
then add the whole complement of water, and 
shake it briskly, and in eight hours it will be suffi- 
ciently fermented, and is a wholesome and pleas- 
ant beer. 



101- TO MAKE GINGER BEER, FOR TEN GALLONS. 

Take ten gallons of water, one quart of molas- 
ses, ten good lemons cut in slices, ten ounces of 
bruised ginger, the whites of eight eggs well beat- 
en, mix all well together, boil it for half an hour, 
skim it before it boils, add half an ounce of isin- 
glass, and one pint of yeast ; add the yeast when 
milk warm, leave the bung open for it to ferment; 
when done, stop it tight to keep, or you may bot- 
tle it after six days. You must tie the corks with 
twine, and put it in a cool place. 

102. A WASH TO GIVE A BRILLIANT LUSTRE TO 

PLATE. 

Take one quart of rain or soft water, dissolve in 
it four ounces of good alum ; when the alum is 
perfectly dissolved, take it off the coals and skim 
it very clean, then bottle it and cork it close. 
When you want to use it, dip a soft sponge into 
some of this liquor, which you must pour out into 
a bowl, and mix with it a little soft soap, say a 
teaspoonful ; rub it well and even over your plate, 
dry with warm towels and polish with leather. 



119 



103. WATER PROOF VARNISH OF THE BEST 

QUALITY. 

Take linseed oil of the best quality, put any 
quantity you please into a well glazed pipkin over 
some red hot charcoal, in achafingdish ; then add 
to the oil, when warming, the fourth part of its 
weight in fine powder of rosin, dissolve them well 
together ; when you want to try it, take a little of 
the oil, and if it draws like thread, you may take 
it off the fire ; if it prove too thin, add some more 
rosin, and continue to boil; when it comes as it 
should be, take whatever article that you have to 
varnish, and when finished, put it in the sun to 
dry, or put it before the fire, as this varnish will 
not dry itself. 

104. CHINESE VARNISH FOR MINIATURE 

PAINTING. 

Take one ounce of white karabe or amber, and 
one drachm of camphor reduced into subtile pow- 
der, put them into a matrass with five ounces of 
spirits of wine, and put it in the sun for twelve or 
fourteen days in the hottest weather, after which 
place the matrass on hot ashes for the space of one 
hour, then strain it through a linen cloth, and bot- 
tle and cork it tight for use. 

105. TO MAKE BOTTLE CEMENT. 

Half a pound of black rosin, same quantity of 
red sealing wax, quarter of an ounce of bees wax, 
melted in an earthen or iron pot ; when it froths 
up, before all is melted and likely to boil over, 
stir it with a tallow candle, which will settle the 
froth till all is melted and fit for use. 



120 



1 have now set down all the receipts that I 
thought were the best. I might have given a hun- 
dred more, for 1 have hundreds written off, but 
all these that I have put down I have tried myself, 
and find them all genuine ; I shall now give you 
some directions for putting dishes, &;c. on table. 



DIRECTIONS FOR PUTTING DISHES ON 
TABLE. 

Soup, broth, or fish, should always be set at the 
head of the table; if none of these, a boiled dish 
goes to the head, when there is both boiled and 
roasted. 

If but one principal dish, it goes to the head of 
the table. 

If three, the principal one to the head and the 
two smallest to stand opposite each other, near 
the foot. 

If four, the biggest to the head, and the next 
biggest to the foot, and the two smallest dishes on 
the sides. 

If five, you are to put the smallest in the middle, 
the other four opposite. 

If six, you are to put the top and bottom as be- 
fore, the two small ones opposite for side dishes. 

If seven, you are to put three dishes down the 
middle of the table, and four others opposite to 
each other round the centre dish. 

If eight, put four dishes down the middle, and 
the remaining four two on each side, at equal 
distances. 



121 

If nine dishes, put them in three equal lines, 
observing to put the proper dishes at the head and 
bottom of the table. 

If ten dishes, put four down the centre, one at 
each corner and one on each side, opposite to the 
vacancy between two central dishes ; or four 
down the middle, and three on each side; each 
opposite to the vacancy of the middle dishes. 

If twelve dishes, place them in three rows of 
four each ; or six down the middle, and three at 
equal distances on each side. 

Note. — If more than the above number of dish- 
es are required, the manner of laying them on the 
table must in a great measure depend on the taste 
of the dresser. 

Desserts are placed in same manner; — if you 
have an ornamental frame for desserts, or a bou- 
quet, or any other ornament, for your dinner-table, 
invariably place them in the middle of the table. 



THE UNIFORM POSITION TO PLACE DIF- 
FERENT JOINTS, «fcc. ON TABLE. 

Let the heads of fish always be placed to the 
Pft hand of the carver, likewise the heads of 
hares, rabbits, and roasting pigs in like manner. 
An aitch bone of beef, let the silver skewer, which 
is generally put into it when for a party dish, 
be placed towards the left hand of the carver. 
A quarter of lamb, let the thin part be put from 
the carver, towards the centre of the table, with 
the neck end to the left of the carver. A shoulder 
and leg of mutton should be placed with the shank 
11* 



122 

of either to the left hand of the carver, unless 
your mistress or master otherwise order it. Tur- 
kies, geese, ducks, and fowls, are to be placed with 
the heads towards the right hand of the carver. 
Likewise woodcocks, snipes, partridges, and all 
sorts of wild fowls are to be placed in the 
like manner as above, because they are much ea- 
sier to carve in this manner. 

There are some people that will choose to have 
the heads of turkies, geese, and ducks, put towards 
their left hand, as they may then be able to come 
at the stuffing more handily. 

In the sirloin of beef, let the thick boney end 
be placed to the left hand of the carver. The sad- 
dle or loin of mutton, the rump end to be placed 
in like manner. 

In many large dishes that are for head and foot, 
there is a place for the gr:ivy in one end of them ; 
observe always to put this end to the right hand 
of the carver, observing likewise not to forget the 
large gravy spoon. 

AH these rules you should observe, and pay 
great attention to them, for in the course of time 
you will find out how much trouble and diiSculty 
there is in turning a large dish round, after the 
company have sat down, besides, it looks careless 
in the servant. 



DIRECTIONS FOR CARVING. 

This is a part of duty, which a house servant is 
seldom called upon to perform ; but in case of 
the sickness of his employers, it is possible he may 
be ordered occasionally on this busmessof the ta- 
ble ; to be found incompetent or awkward in such 



123 

emergency would be mortifying to both master 
and servant, I have therefore my young friends, 
selected a few observations on this delicate and 
important art for your information. A complete 
and full knowledge of the business would do you 
no harm; depend upon it you cannot learn too 
much of every thing in the least connected with 
service ; if you should never be called upon to 
exercise your skill at your employer's table, you 
Avill perhaps daily or frequently find use for your 
talents at the servants' table, or, when you quit 
service and have a family of your ovi'n ; and neat- 
ness and skill are requisite in every thing you un- 
dertake, and in every station, whether for your 
employers, or for your equals. I would not have 
you intrusive, which would be worse than igno- 
rance, but let your ' light be kept under a bushel,' 
always ready for modest use, if required. 1 shall 
now give you directions for carving several kinds 
of meat, fish, fowls, &c. 

The carving-knife should be light, yet of a suffi- 
cient size, and the edge very keen. In using it, 
no great personal strength is requisite, as constant 
practice will render it an easy task to carve the 
most difficult articles, more depending on address 
than force ; but, in order to prevent trouble, the 
joints of mutton, veal, lamb, &c. should be divided 
by the butcher, when they may be easily cut 
through, and fine slices of meat taken off from be- 
tween every two bones. 

The more fleshy joints are to be cut in smooth 
slices, neatly done; and in joints of beef and mut- 
ton, the knife should alvvays be passed down the 
bone by those who wish to carve with propriety, 
and great attention should be paid to help every 
person to a portion of the best parts. Fish should 



124 

be carefully helped, because if the flakes are bro- 
ken, the beauty of it is entirely lost, for which rea- 
son a proper fish slice should be used, and observe 
to send a part of the roe, liver, &c. to each indi- 
vidual. The heads of cod, salmon, carp, the fins 
of turbot, and sounds of cod, are esteemed as del- 
icacies, and, of course some should be sent to each 
person in company, which denotes an attentive 
degree of politeness towards your guests. In car- 
ving ducks, geese, turkeys, or wild fowl, you 
should cut the slices down from pinion to pinion, 
without making wings, by which you will gain 
more prime pieces ; but you need onlj' do this 
when your party is large. 

A cod's head. 

Fish is easily carved. The dish now under con- 
sideration, in its proper season, is esteemed a del- 
icacy ; when served up, it should be cut with a 
fish-slice, and it should be remembered that the 
parts about the back-bone and the shoulders are 
generally accounted the best. Cut a piece quite 
off down to the bone, observing with each piece to 
help a part of the sound. There are several deli- 
cate parts about the head ; the jelly part lies 
about the jaw bone, and is by some esteemed very 
fine, and the firm parts will be found within the 
head. 

ROUND OF BEEF. 

This valuable and excellent dish must be cut in 
thin slices, and very smooth with a sharp knife, 
observing to help every person to a portion of the 
fat, also cut in thin smooth slices, as nothing has a 
worse appearance than fat when hacked. Ob- 
serve, also, that a thick slice should be cut off the 



125 

meat, before you begin to help your friends, as the 
boiling water renders the outside vapid, and of 
course unfit for your guests. 

EDGE-BONE OF BEEF. 

Take off a slice three quarters of an inch thick, 
all the length, and then help your guests; the soft 
marrow-like fat is situated at the back of the bone 
below, the solid fat will be duly portioned from its 
situation with each slice you cut. The skewer 
with which the meat is held together while boiling, 
should be removed before the meat is brought to 
table, as nothing can be more unpleasant than to 
meet with a skewer when carving ; but as some 
articles require one to be left in, a silver skewer 
should invariably be employed for that purpose. 

SIRLOIN OP BEEF. 

You may begin carving a sirloin of beef either 
at the end, or by cutting into the middle ; cut your 
slices close down to the bone, and let them be 
thin, observing to give some of the soft fat with 
each slice. Many persons prefer the outside ; it 
is therefore a point of politeness to enquire which 
they will take. 

FILLET OF VEAL. 

The bone of this piece being taken out, renders 
the helping of it very easy. Many persons prefer 
the outside, — ask this; and if so, help them to it, 
otherwise cut it off, and then continue to take off 
thin smooth slices ; observing to take from the 
flap, into which you must cut deep, a portion of 
stuffing to every slice, as likewise a small bit of 
fat. Lemon should always be served with thi» 
joint. 



126 



BREAST OF VEAL 



Is composed of two parts, the ribs and brisket, 
the latter is thickest, and is composed of gristles, 
the division of which you may easily discern, at 
which part you must enter your knife, and cut 
through it, which will separate the two parts, then 
proceed to help your guests to whatever part they 
chance to prefer. 

calf's head. 

Cut out slices, observing to pass your knife close 
into the bone; at the thick part of the neck is sit- 
uated the throat and sweet-bread,which you should 
carve a slice of Avith the other part, that your 
guests may have a portion of each. If the eye is 
preferred, which is frequently the case, take it out, 
cut it in two, send one half to the person who pre- 
fers it, and on removing the jaw-bone, some lean 
will be found, if required. The palate, generally 
esteemed a peculiar delicacy, is situated under 
the head : this should be divided into small por- 
tions, and a part helped to each person. 

SHOULDER OF MUTTOW. 

Cut into the bone; the prime part of the fat 
lies in the outer edge, and must be thinly and 
smoothly sliced ; when your company is large, and 
it becomes necessary to have more meat than can 
be cut as above directed, some very fine slices 
may be cut out on each side of the blade bone, but 
observe, the blade bone cannot be cut across. 

LEG OF MUTTON. 

Wether mutton is esteemed the best, and may 
be known by a lump of fat at the edge of the 



127 

broadest part, the slices are situated in the centre; 
when you carve, put your knife in. there, and cut 
thin smooth slices, and, as the outside is rarely fat 
enough, cut some from the side of the broad end 
in neat slices. Some persons prefer the knuckle, 
the question should therefore be always asked ; 
on the back of the leg there are several fine slices, 
for which purpose turn it up, and cut the meat out 
lengthways. The cramp-bone is generally es- 
teemed a delicacy ; to cut it out, take hold of the 
shank with your left hand, and cut down to the 
thigh bone, then pass the knife under the cramp 
bone. 

A FORE-QUARTER OF LAMB. 

Divide the shoulder from the breast and ribs,_by 
passing the knife under, observing not to cut the 
meat too much off the bones. When the lamb is 
large, put the shoulder in another dish, and 
squeeze half a lemon over it, and the same over 
the breast and ribs, with a little pepper and salt, 
then divide the grisly part from the ribs, and help 
agreeably to the taste of your guests. 

HAUNCH OF VENISON. 

Pass your knife down to the bone, which will let 
out the gravy, then turn the broadest end of the 
joint towards you, and put in your knife, cutting 
as deep as you can to the end of the haunch; let 
your slices be thin and smooth, the fat, which is al- 
ways esteemed, to each person : you will find 
most fat on the left side, which, with the gravy, 
must be properly divided among your guests. 

HAUNCH OF MUTTOSr 

Consists of a leg and a part of the loin, cut so as 
to resemble a haunch of of venison, and must be 
carved in the same manner. 



128 



SADDLE OF MUTTON. 

Take your slices from the tail to the end, com- 
mencing close to the back bone ; let them be long, 
thin, and smooth ; a portion of fat to each slice 
must be taken from the sides. 

ROAST PIG. 

This is generally divided by the cook before it 
is served up. You must first divide the shoulder 
from the body on one side, and then the leg, the 
ribs are next to be separated in two or three parts, 
and an ear or a jaw presented with them, together 
■with a sufficiency of proper sauce. The ribs are 
commonly thought to be the finest part; but as 
this must depend on taste, the question should be 
asked. 



The best method of helping ham is to begin in 
the middle by cutting long slices through the 
thick fat. When made use of for pies, the meat 
should be cut from the under side, after taking off 
a thick slice. 



Separate the apron, and pour a glass of port 
wine into the body, and a little ready mixed mus- 
tard, then cut the whole breast in long slices, but 
remove them only as you help them ; separate 
the leg from the body by putting the fork into the 
small end of the bone, pressing it to the body, and 
having passed the knife turn the leg back. To 
take off the wnng, put your fork into the small end 
of the pinion, and press it close to the body; then 
put in the knife, and divide the joint" down. 



129 

However, practice can alone render persons ex- 
pert at this; when you have thus taken off the 
leg and wing on one side, do the same by the oth- 
er if it be necessary, which will not be the case un- 
less your company is large ; by the wing there are 
two side bones, which may be taken off, as may 
the back and lower side bones, but the breast and 
the thighs, divided from the drum-sticks, afford the 
finest and most delicious pieces. 



The legs of a boiled fowl are bent inwards, and 
tucked in the belly ; but the hkewers must be re- 
moved before it is sent to table. To carve a 
fowl, take it on your plate, and as you separate 
the joints, place them on the dish; cut the wing 
off, observing only to divide the joint with your 
knife; then lift the pinion with your fork and 
draw the wings towards the legs which will sepa- 
rate the fleshy part more effectually than cutting 
it; to separate the leg, slip the knife between 
the leg and body, and cut the bone; then, with 
the fork, turn the leg back, and the joint will give 
way ; when the wings and legs are in this manner 
removed, take off the merry-thought, and the neck 
bones ; the next thing is to divide the breast from 
the body, bj'' cutting through the tender ribs, close 
to the breast, entirely down to the tail; then lay 
the back upwards, put your knife into the bone 
half ways i^rom the neck to the rump, and on rais- 
ing the lower end, it will readily separate. The 
breast and wings are the most delicate parts ; 
however, the best way is to consult the taste of 
your guests, by asking which part they prefer. 
12 



130 



PARTRIDGE. 



The skewers must be taken out before it is sent 
to table, and it is then to be carved in the same 
manner as a fowl. The wings, breast, and merry- 
thought are the primest parts. \ 



Should be divided right in halves, either length- 
ways or across, and helped to each person. 

In respect to carving, written directions must 
always fail without constant practice, as that can 
alone give the necessary facility. ^ 



GOING TO MARKET. 

Your employer will generally attend to going to 
market, to suit himself; but your experience, if 
you should be called upon to do this duty, is of 
the utmost consequence. It is impossible to give 
you particular directions for all kinds of articles 
for the table ; in all cases observation and experi- 
ence only can supply you with these to any degree 
of perfection. I shall merely set down some of 
the principal means of judging of the freshness or 
goodness of provisions, in the choice of poultry ,&:c. 
Beef, veal, pork, mutttfn, and vegetables, you all 
are generally competent of purchasing. 

LAMB. 

In a fore-quarter of lamb mind the neck vein : 
if it be an azure blue, it is new and good ; but if 



131 

green or yellow, it is near tainting, if not tainted 
already. In the hind quarter, smell under the 
kidney, and try the knuckle; if you meet with a 
faint scent, and the knuckle be limber, it is stale 
killed. For a lamb's head, mind the eyes ; if sunk 
or wrinkled, it is stale; if plump and lively, it is 
new and sweet. 

VEAL. 

If the bloody vein in the shoulder looks blue, 
or of a bright red, it is new killed; but if black, 
green, or yellow, it is flabby and stale ; if wrapped 
in wet cloths, smell whether it be musty or not. 
For the loin first taints under the kidney ; and the 
flesh, if stale killed, will be soft and slimy. 

The breast and neck taints first at the upper 
end, and you will perceive a dusky, yellow, or 
green appearance ; and the sweetbread on the 
breast will be clammy, otherwise it is fresh and 
good. The leg is known to be new by the stiflT- 
ness of the joint; if limber and the flesh seems 
clammy, and has green or yellow specks, it is 
stale. The head is known as the lamb's. 

The flesh of a bull calf is more red and firm 
than that of a cow-calf, and the fat more hard 
curdled. 

MUTTON. 

If it be young, the flesh will pinch tender ; if 
old, it will wrinkle and remain so : if young, the 
fat will easily part from the lean ; if old, it will 
stick by strings and skins: if ram-mutton, the fat 
feels spungy, the flesh close grained and tough, not 
rising again when dented; if ewe-mutton, the 
flesh is paler than wether mutton, a close grain 
and easily parting. If there be a rot, the flesh 
will be pale, and the fat a faint white inclining to 



132 

yellow, and the flesh will be loose at the bone. If 
you squeeze it hard, some drops of water will 
stand up like sweat. 

As to the newness and staleness, the same is to 
be observed as in lamb. 



If it be right ox beef, it will have an open 
grain; if young, a tender and oily smoothness; 
if rough and spongy, it is old, or inclined to be so, 
except the neck, brisket, and such parts as are 
very fibrous, which in young meat will be more 
rough than other parts. 

A carnation, pleasant colour, betokens good 
meat: the suet a curious white; yellow is not 
good. Cow-beef is less bound and closer grained 
than ox, the fat whiter, but the lean somewhat 
paler; if young, ihe dent made with the finger 
will rise again in a little time. 

Bull-beef is close grained, deep dusky red, tough 
in pinching, the fat skinny, hard, and has a ram- 
mish rank smell ; and for newness, and staleness, 
this flesh brought fresh has but few signs, the more 
material is its clamminess, and the rest your smell 
will inform you. If it be bruised, these places 
will look more dusky or blacker than the rest. 

PORK. 

If young, the lean will break in pinching be- 
tween the fingers; and if you nip the skin with 
your nails, it will make a dent; also if the fat be 
soft and pulpy like lard ; if the lean be tough, 
and the fat flabby and spongy, feeling rough, it is 
old, especially if the rind be stubborn, and you 
cannot nip it with your nails. 

If a boar, though young, or a hog gelded at- full 



133 

growth, the flesh will be hard, tough, red, and ram- 
mish of smell; the fat skinny and hard ; the skin 
thick and rough, and pinched up, will immediately 
fall again. 

As for old or new killed, try the legs, hands, 
and springs, by putting the finger under the bone 
that comes out ; if it be tainted, you will there 
find out by smelling the finger ; besides the skin will 
be sweaty and clammy when stale, but cool and 
smooth when new. 

If you find little kernels in the fat of the pork, 
like hail-shot, it is measly and dangerous to be 
eaten. 

BRAWN. 

Brawn is known to be old or young by the ex- 
traordinary or moderate thickness of the rind ; the 
thick is old, moderate young. If the rind and fat 
be tender, itis not boar brawn but barrow or sow. 

VENISON. 

Try the haunches or shoulders under the bones 
that come out with your finger or knife and as the 
scent is sweet or rank, it is new or stale ; and the 
like of the sides in the fleshy parts ; if tainted, 
they will look green in some places, or more than 
ordinary black. Look on the hoofs, and if the 
clefts are very wide and rough, it is old ; if close 
and smooth it is young. 

HAMS AND BACON. 

Put a knife under the bone that sticks out of the 
ham, and if it comes out in a manner clean, and 
has a curious flavour, it is sweet; if much smear- 
ed and dulled, it is tainted or rusted. 

Gammons are tried the same way, and for other 
parts, try the fat ; if it be white, oily in feeling, 
12* 



TS4 

does not break or crumb, it is good ; but if the 
contrary, and the lean has little streaks of yel- 
low, it is rusty, or will soon be so. 

HARE, LEVERET, OR RABBIT. 

Hare will be white and stiff if new and clean 
killed: if stale, the flesh black in most parts, and 
the body limber: if the cleft in her lips spread 
much, and her claws wild and ragged, she is old ; 
the contrary young; if young, the ears will tare 
like brown paper ; if old, dry and tough. To 
know a true leveret, feel on the fore-leg, nea* the 
foot, and if there is a small bone or knob, it is 
right; if not it is a hare; for the rest observe as 
in a hare. A rabbit, if stale, will be limber and 
slimy; if new, white and stiff; if old, her claws 
are long and rough, the wool mottled with grey 
hairs ; if young, claws and wool smooth. 



When you buy butter, trust not to that which 
will be given you, but try in the middle, and if 
your smell and taste be good, you cannot be de- 
ceived. 



Cheese is to be chosen by its moist and smooth 
coat; if old cheese be rough coated, rugged, or 
dry at top, beware of little worms or miles; if it 
be over full of holes, moist or spongy, it is subject 
to mites; if soft or perished places appear on 
the outside, try how deep it goes, the greater part 
may be hid. 

EGGS. 

Hold the great end to your tongue or lip; if it feels 
warm it is new ; if cold, bad ; and so in propor- 



135 

tion to the heat or cold, is the goodness of the 
egg. Another way to know, is to put the egg in a 
pan of cold water, the fresher the egg, the sooner 
it will fall to the bottom ; if rotten, it will swim at 
the top. This is a sure way not to be deceived. 
Sound eggs may be also known by holding them 
between the eye and a lighted candle, or the sun. 
As to the keeping of them, pitch them all with the 
small end downwards in fine wood ashes, turning 
them once a week end-waj^s, and they will keep 
some months. 

HOW TO CHOOSE POULTRY. 



If it be young, his spurs are short, and his legs 
smooth: if a true capon, a fat vein on the side of 
his breast, the comb pale, and a thick belly and 
rump: if new, he will have a hard close vent; if 
stale, a loose open vent. 

A COCK OB. HEN TURKEY, TURKEY POULTS. 

If the cock be young, his legs will be black and 
smooth, and his spurs short; if stale, his eyes will 
be sunk in his head, and the feet dry ; if new, the 
eyes lively, and feet limber. Observe the like by 
the hens ; and moreover, if she be with egg, she 
will have a soft open vent ; if not, a hard close 
vent. Turkey poults are known the same way, 
their age cannot deceive you. 

COCK, HEN, &;c. 

If young, his spurs are short and dubbed ; but 
take particular notice they are not pared or scrap- 
ed: if old, he will have an open vent; but if 



136 

new, a close hard vent. And so of a hen for new- 
ness or staleness : if old, her legs and comb ar« 
rough ; if young, smooth. 

A TAME, WILD, AND BRAN GOOSE. 

If the bill be yellow, and she has but a few 
hairs, she is young, but if full of hairs, and the bill 
and foot red, she is old; if new, limber-footed ; if 
stale, dry-footed. And so of a wild bran goose. 

WILD AND TAME DUCKS. 

The duck, when fat, is hard and thick on the 
belly ; if not, thin and lean ; if new, limber-footed ; 
if stale, dry-footed. A true wild duck has a red 
foot, smaller than the tame one. 

PARTRIDGE, COCK AND HEN. 

The bill white, and the legs blue, show age; 
for if young, the bill is black, and the legs yellow ; 
if new, a fast vent ; if stale, a green and open one. 
If full crops, and they have fed on green food, 
they may taint there; for this, smell the mouth. 

WOODCOCK AND SNIPE. 

The wookcock, if fat, is thick and hard; if new, 
limber-footed; when stale, dry-footed; or if their 
noses are slimy, and their throats muddy and 
moorish, they are not good. A snipe, if fat, has a 
fat vein on the side under the wing, and in the 
vent feels thick. For the rest, like the woodcock. 

DOVES AND PIGEONS. 

To know the turtle-dove, look for a blue ring 
round his neck, and the rest mostly white. 

The pigeon is bigger ; and the ring-dove is 
less than the pigeon. The dove-house pigeons, 



137 

when old are red-legged; if new and fat, they 
will feel full and fat in the vent, and are limber- 
footed ; but if stale, a flabby and green vent. 

So the green or grey plover, fieldfare, blackbird, 
thrush, larks, (fee. 

HOW TO CHOOSE FISH. 



SALMON, PIKE, TRENT, CARP, TENCH, GRAILINQ, 
BARBEL, CHUB, RUFF, EEL, WHITING, SMELT, 
SHAD, &C. 

All these are known to be new or stale by the 
colour of their gills, their easiness or hardness to 
open, the hanging or keeping up of the fins, the 
standing out or sinking of the eyes, and by smel- 
ling the gills. 

TURBOT. 

He is chosen by his thickness and plumpness; 
and if his belly be of a cream colour, he 'must 
eat well ; but if thin, and his belly of a bluish 
white he will eat very loose. 

COD AND CODLING. 

Choose by his thickness towards the head, and 
the whiteness of his flesh when it is cut : and so 
of a codling. 

STURGEON. 

If it cuts without crumbling, and the veins and 
gristles give a true blue where they appear, and 
the flesh a perfect white, then conclude it to be 
good. 

FRESH HERRING AND MACKEREL. 

If their gills are of a lively shining redness, their 
eyes stand full, and the fish is stiff, then they are 



158 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

new; but if dusky and faded, or sinking and 
wrinkled, and tails limber, they are stale. 

LOBSTERS. 

Choose by their weight; the heaviest are best, 
if no water be in them ; if new, the tail will pull 
smart like a spring; if full, the middle of the tail 
will be full of hard, or red skinned meat. A cock 
lobster is known by the narrow back part of the 
tail, and the two uppermost fins within his tail are 
stiff and hard; but the hen is soft, and the back 
of her tail broader. 

PLAICE AN1> FLOUNDERS. 

If they are stiff, and their eyes, be not sunk or 
look dull, they are new; the contrary when stale. 
The best sort of plaice looks blue on the belly. 



A FEW OBSERVATIONS TO COOKS, &c. 

Thus far, Joseph and David, I have addressed 
myself to you, and might here conclude my obser- 
vations; but as this book may fall into the hands 
not only of those who call themselves house ser- 
vants, but the cook, and every other attendant on 
large or small families, 1 have appended a few 
observations addressed to house servants generally, 
but more especially to the cook, and assistant cook ; 
and, that I might not be thought guilty of presump- 
tion, in teaching what it may be thought I may not 
perfectly understand myself, or, as the old saying 
is 'swim beyond my depth,' I shall quote this im-. 
portant part of the work from a most approved au* 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 139 

thor, of whose knowledge on these points there 
can be no doubt. Some things mentioned may not 
particularly apply to the case in hand ; but gene- 
rally speaking, the remarks and advice are such as 
should be read by every individual in every kitch- 
en of every great family. 

On your first coming into a family, lose no time 
in immediately getting into the good graces of your 
fellow-servants, that you may learn from them the 
customs of the kitchen, and the various rules and 
orders of the house. 

Take care to be on good terms with the servant 
•who waits at table; you may make use of him as 
your centinel to inform you how your work has 
pleased in the parlour, and by his report you may 
be enabled in some measure to rectify any mis- 
take : but request the favour of an interview with 
your master or mistress, — depend as little as pos- 
sible on second-hand opinions — judge of your em- 
ployers from your own observations and their be- 
haviour to you, not from any idle reports from the 
other servants, who, if your master or mistress in- 
advertently drop a word in your praise — will im- 
mediately take alarm, -and fearing your being more 
in favour than themselves, will seldom stick at tri- 
fles to prevent it, by pretending to take a prodig- 
ious liking to you, and poisoning jour mind in such 
a manner as to destroy all your confidence, &c. in 
your eniployers, and if they do not immediately 
succeed in worrying you away — will take care 
that you have no comfort while you stay. 

If you are a good cook, and have tolerable fair 
play, you will soon become a favourite domestic, if 
your master is a man of taste ; but never boast of 
his approbation, for in proportion as you think you 
rise in his estimation — you will excite all the 



140 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

tricks that envy, haired, and malice, and all un- 
charitableness, can suggest to your fellow-servants ; 
every one of whom, if less diligent, or less favour- 
ed than yourself will he your enemy. 

While warning you against making others your 
enemy, we must caution you also to take care 
that you do not yourself become your own and 
greatest enemy. ' Favourites are never in greater 
danger of falling, than when in the greatest favour,' 
which of(en begets a careless inattention to the 
commands of their employers, and insolent over- 
bearance to their equals, a gradual neglect of duty, 
and corresponding forfeiture of that regard, which 
can only be preserved by the means which cre- 
ated it. 

If your employers are so pleased with your con- 
duct as to treat you as a friend rather than a ser- 
vant, do not let their kindness excite your self- 
conceit, so as to make you for a moment forget 
you are one. Condescension even to a proverb 
produces contempt in inconsiderate minds — and 
to such the very means which benevolence takes 
to cherish attention to duty, becomes the cause of 
the evil you wished to prevent. 

To be an agreeable companion in the kitchen, 
\vithout compromising your duty to your patrons 
in the parlour, requires no small portion of good 
sense and good nature; in a word, you must 
* do as you would be done by.' 

Act for, and speak of, every body, as if they 
were present. 

We hope the culinary student who peruses these 
pages, will be above adopting the common, mean 
and base, and ever unsuccesful way of ' holding 
with the hare, and running with the hounds,' — of 
currying favour with fellow-servants by flattering 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 141 

them, and ridiculing the mistress when in the 
kitchen, and then prancing into the parlour and 
purring about her, and making opportunities to 
display all the little faults you can find (or invent) 
that will tell well against those in the kitchen, as- 
suring them, on your return, that they were prais- 
ed for whatever you heard them blamed ; and so, 
excite them to run more extremeiy into any little 
error, which you think will he most displeasing to 
their employers, watching an opportunity to pour 
your poisonous lies into their unsuspecting ears, 
when there is no third person to bear witness of 
your inquiry — making your victims believe it is all 
out of your sincere regard for them — assuring 
them (as Betty says in the Man of the World) — 
' That indeed you are no busybody that loves fend- 
ing nor proving, but hate all tittling and tattling — 
and gossiping and back-biting,' &c. &c. 

Depend upon it, if you hear fellow-servants 
speak disrespectfully of a master or mistress with 
whom they have lived some time, it is a sure sign 
that they have some sinister scheme against your- 
self. ]f they have not been well treated, why- 
have they stayed ? 

' There is nothing more detestable than defa- 
mation ; I have no scruple to rank a slanderer 
with a murderer or an assassin. Those who as- 
sault the reputation of their benefactors, and ' rob 
you of that which nought enriches them,' would 
destroy your life, if they could do it with equal 
impunity.' 

' If you hope to gain the esteem and respect of 
others, and the approbation of your own heart, be 
respectful and faithful to your superiors, obliging 
and good-natured to your fellow-servants, and 
charitable to all.' 
13 



142 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

' Let your character be remarkable for indus- 
try and moderation ; your manners and deport- 
ment, for modesty and humility; and your dress 
distinguished for simplicity, frugality and neatness; 
if you outshine your companions in finery, you will 
most inevitably excite their envy, and make them 
your enemies.' 

' Do every thing at the proper time.' 
' Keep every thing in its proper place.' 
' Use every thing for its proper purpose.' 

' Never think any part of your business too tri- 
fling to be well done.' 

' Eagerly embrace every opportunity of learn- 
ing any thing which may be useful to yourself, or 
of doing any thing which may benefit others.' 

Do not throw 3'ourself out of a good place for a 
slight affi-ont. ' Come when you are called, and 
do what you are bid.' 

Place yourself in your master's situation, and 
then consider what you would expect from him, if 
he were in yours. 

Although there may be ' more places than par- 
ish churches,' it is not very easy to find many more 
good ones. 

' A rolling stone never gathers moss.' 

' Honesty is the best policy. ' 

'A still tongue makes a wise head.' 

' Saucy answers are highly aggravating, and 
serve no good purpose.' 

Let your master or mistress scold ever so much, 
or be ever so unreasonable ; as ' a soft answer 
turneth away wrath,' — so ' will silence, or a mild 
answer, be the best a servant can make.' 

' If your employers are hasty, and have scolded 
without reason, bear it patiently ; they will soon 
see their error, and be happy to make you amends. 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 143 

Muttering on leaving the room, or slamming the 
door after you, is as bad as an impertinent reply; 
it is, in fact, showing that you would be imperti- 
nent if you dared," 

'A faithful servant will rot only never speak 
disrespectfully to her employers, but will not hear 
disrespectful words said of them.' 

Apply direct to your employers, and beg of 
them to explain to you as fully as possible, how 
they like their victuals dressed, whether much, or 
little done. 

Of what complexion they wish the roasts, of a 
gold colour, or well browned, and if they like them 
frothed ? 

Do they like soups and sauces, thick or thin, or 
white or brown, clean or full in the mouth ? What 
accompaniments they are partial to ? 

What flavours they fancy? especially of spice 
and herbs. 

It is impossible that the most accomplished 
cook can please their palates, till she has learned 
their particular taste ; this, it can hardly be ex- 
pected, she can hit exactly the first time, however, 
the hints we have here given, will very much fa- 
cilitate the ascertainment of this main chance of 
getting into their favour. 

The sense of taste depends much on the 
health of the individual, and is hardly ever 
for a single hour in the same state, such is the 
Extremely intimate sympathy between the stom- 
ach and the tongue, that in proportion as the for- 
mer is empty, the latter is acute and sensitive; 
this is the cause that 'good appetite is the best 
sauce,' and that the dish we find relishing and sa- 
voury at luncheon, is insipid at dinner, and at sup- 
per quite tasteless. 



144 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

To taste any thing in perfection the tongue 
must be moistened, or the substance applied to it 
contain moisture, the nervous papillae which con- 
stitute this sense are roused to still more lively 
sensibility by salt, sugar, aromatics, &c. 

If the palate becomes dull by repeated tasting, 
one of the best ways of refreshing it, is to masti- 
cate an apple, or to wash your mouth well with 
milk. 

The incessant exercise of tasting, which a cook 
is obliged to submit to during the education of her 
tongue frequently impairs the very faculty she is 
trying to improve, "Tis true 'tis pity, and pity 
"tis,' (says a grand gourmand,) 'tis true, her too 
anxious perseverance to penetrate the mysteries 
of palatics may diminish the /ac/, exhaust the pow- 
er and destroy the index, without which all her la- 
bour is vain.' 

Therefore a sagacious cook, instead of idly and 
wantonly wasting the excitability of her palate, on 
the sensibility of which, her reputation and fortune 
depend, when she has ascertained her relative 
strength of the flavour of the various ingredients 
she employs, will call in the balance and the meas- 
ure, to do the ordinary business, and to preserve 
her organ of taste with the utmost care, that it 
may be a faithful oracle to refer to, on grand oc- 
casions, and new compositions ; of these an inge- 
nious cook may form as endless a variety, as a 
musician with his seven notes, or a painter with 
his colours. 

Receive as the highest testimonies of your em- 
ployer's regard, whatever observations they make 
on your work, such admonitions are the most un- 
equivocal proofs of their desire to make you thor- 
oughly understand their taste, and their wish to 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 146 

retain you in their service, or they would not take 
the trouble to leach you. 

Enter into all their plans of economy, and en- 
deavour to make the most of every thing, as well 
for your own honour as your master's profit; take 
care that the meat which is to make its appear- 
ance again in the parlour, is handsomely cut 
with a sharp knife, and put on a clean dish, take 
care of the gravy which is left, it will save many 
pounds of meat in making sauce for hashes, poul- 
try, and many little dishes. 

Many things may be re-dressed, in a different 
form, from that in which they were first served, 
and improve the appearance of the table without 
increasing the expense of it. 

The best way to warm cold meat is to sprinkle 
the joint over with a little salt, put it in a Dutch 
oven, at some distance before a gentle fire, that it 
may warm gradually, watch it carefully, and keep 
turning it till it is quite hot and brown : it will take 
from twenty minutes to three quarters of an hour, 
according to its thickness ; serve it up with gra- 
vy; this is much better than hashing it, and by 
doing it nicely, a cook will get great credit. Poul- 
try, fried fish, &c. may be re-dressed this way. 

Take care of the liquor you have boiled poultry 
or meat in ; in five minutes you may make it into 
excellent soup. No good housewife has any pre- 
tensions to rational economy who boils animal 
food without converting the broth into some sort 
of soup. 

However highly the uninitiated in the mystery 
of soup-making maj' elevate the external appen- 
dage of his olfactor}' organ at the mention of ' pot 
liquor,' if he tastes, he will be as wellpleased with 
it as a Frenchman is with ' potage a la camerani,' 
13* 



146 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

of which it is said ' a single spoonful will lap the 
palate in Elysium, and while a drop of it remains 
on the tongue, each other sense is eclipsed by the 
voluptuous thrilling of the lingual nerves !' 

Broth of fragments. — When you dress a large 
dinner, you may make good broth or portable soup 
at very small cost, by taking care of all the trim- 
mings and parings of the meat, game, and poultry 
you are going to use ; wash them well, and put 
them into a stewpan, with as much cold water as 
will cover them ; set your stewpan on a hot fire ; 
when it boils, take off all the .scum, and set it on 
again to simmer gently; put in two carrots, two 
turnips, a large onion, three blades of pounded 
mace, and a head of celery; some mushroom 
parings will be a great addition. Let it continue 
to simmer gently four or five hours, strain it 
thro.ugh a sieve into a clean basin. This will save 
a great deal of expense in buying gravy meat. 

Have the dust, &c. removed regularly once a 
fortnight, and have your kitchen chimney swept 
once a month ; many good dinners have been 
spoiled, and many houses burnt down by the soot 
falling; the best security against this, is for the 
cook to have a long birch broom, and e\ery morn- 
ing brush down all the soot within reach of it. 

Give notice to your employers when the contents 
of j'our coal cellar are diminished. 

It will be to little purpose to procure good pro- 
visions, without you have proper utensils to pre- 
pare them in : the most expert artist cannot per- 
form his work in a perfect manner without prop- 
er instruments; you cannot have neat work with- 
out nice tools, nor can you dress victuals well with- 
out an apparatus appropriate to the work required. 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 147 

' In those houses where the cook enjoys the con- 
fidence of her employer so much as to be intrust- 
ed with the care of the store-room, which is not 
very common, she will keep an exact account of 
every thing as it comes in, and insist upon the 
weight and price being fixed to every article she 
purchases, and occasionally will (and it may not 
be amiss, to jocosely drop a hint to those who sup- 
ply them, that she does) reweigh them for her 
own satisfaction, as well as that of her employer, 
and will not trust the key of this room to any one; 
she will also keep an account of every thing she 
takes from it, and manage with as much consider- 
ation and frugality as if it was her own property 
she was using, endeavouring to disprove the adage, 
that ' plenty makes waste,' and remembering that 
' wilful waste makes woful want.' 

The honesty of a cook must be above all sus- 
picion: she must obtain, and, (in spite of the num- 
berless temptations, &,c. that daily offer to bend 
her from it,) preserve a character of spotless in- 
tegrity, and useful industry, remembering that it is 
the fair price of independence, which all wish for, 
but none without it can hope for : only a fool or a 
madman will be so silly or so crazy, as to expect 
to reap, where he has been too idle to sow. 

Very few modern built town-houses have a pro- 
per place to preserve provisions in, the best sub- 
stitute is a hanging-safe, which you may contrive 
to suspend in an airy situation, and when you or- 
der meat, poultry or fish, tell the tradesman when 
you intend to dress it, he will then have it in his 
power to serve you with provisions that will do 
him credit, which the finest meat, &c. in the world 
will never do, unless it has been kept a proper 
lime to be ripe and tender. 



148 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

If you have a well-ventilated larder, in a shady, 
dry situation, you may make it still surer, by order- 
ing in your meat and poultry, such a time before 
you want it as will render it tender, which the fin- 
est meat cannot be, unless hung a proper time, 
according to the season and nature of the meat, 
&c. but always as ' les bons hommes de bouche de 
France,' say it is ' assez mortifiee.' 

Permitting this process to proceed to a certain 
degree, renders meat much more easy of solution 
in the stomach, and for those whose digestive fac- 
ulties are delicate, it is of the utmost importance 
that it be attended to with the greatest nicety, 
for the most consummate skill in the culinary 
preparation of it, will not compensate the want of 
attention to this. Meat that is thoroughly roasted, 
or boiled, eats much shorter and tenderer, and is 
in proportion more digestible, than that which is 
under done. 

To encourage the best performance of the ma- 
chinery of mastication, the cook must take care 
that her dinner is not only well cooked, but that 
each dish be sent to table with its proper accom- 
paniments in the neatest and most elegant manner. 

Remember that to excite the good opinion of 
the eye is the first step towards awakening the 
appetite. 

Decoration is much more rationally employed 
in rendering a plain wholesome nutritious dish 
inviting, than in the elaborate embellishments 
which are crowded about trifles and custards. 

Endeavour to avoid over-dressing roasts and 
boils, &c. and over-seasoning soups and sauces, 
^vith salt, pepper, &;c. it is a fault which cannot be 
mended. 

If your roasts, &c. are a little under-done ; with 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 149 

the assistance of the stewpan, the gridiron, or the 
Dutch oven, you may soon rectify the mistake 
made with the spit or the pot. 

If over-done, the best juices of the meat are 
evaporated, it will serve merely to distend the 
stomach, and if the sensation of hunger be removed, 
it is at the price of an indigestion. 

The chief business of cookery, is to render food 
easy of digestion, and to facilitate nutrition. This 
is most completely accomplished by plain cookery 
in perfection, i. e. neither over nor under-done. 

With all your care, you will not get credit by 
cooking to perfection, if more than one dish goes 
to table at a time. 

To be eaten in perfection, the interval between 
meat being taken out of the stew-pan, and its be- 
ing put into the mouth, must be as short as possible : 
but ceremon}'-, that most formidable enemy to good 
cheer, too often decrees it otherwise, and the 
guests seldom get a bit of an ' entremet,' till it is 
half cold. So aiuch time is often lost in putting 
every thing in applepie order, that long before 
dinner is announced, all becomes lukewarm, and, 
to complete the mortification of the grand gour- 
mand, his meat is put on a sheet of ice in the shape 
of a plate, which instantly converts the gravy into 
jelly, and the fat into a something which puzzles 
his teeth and the roof of his mouth as much as if 
he had birdlime to masticate : a complete meat- 
skreen will answer the purpose of a hot closet, 
plate-warmer &c. 

Never undertake more work than you are quite 
certain you can do well : and if you are ordered 
to prepare a larger dinner than you think you can 
send up with ease and neatness, or to dress any 
dish you are unacquainted with, rather than run 



150 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

any risk of spoiling any thing, (for by one fault, 
you may perhaps lose all your credit) request your 
employers to let you have some help. They will 
acquit you for pleading guilty of inability, but if 
you make an attempt, and fail, they may vote it a 
capital offence. 

Do not trust any part of your work to others 
without carefully overlooking them ; whatever 
faults they commit, you will be censured for ; if 
you have forgotten any article which is indispen- 
sable for the day's dinner, request 3^our employer 
to send one of the other servants for it. The 
cook must never quit her post, till her work is en- 
tirely finished. 

It requires the utmost skill and contrivance to 
have all things done as they should be, and all done 
together, at that critical moment when the dinner 
bell sounds ' to the banquet.' 

" A feast must be without a fault ; 
And, if 'tis not all right, 'tis naught." 

But, 

" Good nature will some failings overlook, 

Forgive mischance, not errors of the cook : 

As, if no salt is thrown about the fish 5 

Or nice crisp'd parsley scatter'd on the fish. 

Shall we in passion from our dinner fly. 

And hopes of pardon to the cook deny. 

For things which Mrs. Glass herself might oversee, 

And all mankind commit as well as she ?" 

such is the endless variety of culinary prepara- 
tions, it would be as vain and fruitless a search, as 
that for the philosopher's stone, to expect to find a 
cook who is quite perfect in the operations of the 
spit, the stewpan, and the rolling-pin ; you will as 
soon find a watchmaker, who can make, put to- 
gether, and regulate every part of a watch. 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 151 

' The universe cannot produce that cook who 
knows how to do every branch of cookery well, 
be his genius as great as possible.' 

Those who desire regularity in the service of 
their table, should have a dial of about twelve 
inches diameter, placed over the kitchen fire- 
place, carefully regulated to keep time exactly 
with the clock in the hall or dining parlour; with 
a frame on one side, containing a taste table, of 
the peculiarities of the master's palate, and the 
particular rules and orders of his kitchen, and on 
the other side, of rewards given to those who at- 
tend to them, and for long and faithful service. 

In small families, where a dinner is seldom 
given, a great deal of preparation is required, and 
the preceding day must be devoted to the busi- 
ness of the kitchen. 

On these occasions a char-woman is often em- 
ployed to do the dirty work, but we rather advise 
you to hire a cook to help to dress the dinner, this 
would be very little more expense, and the work 
got through much better. 

When you have a very large entertainment to 
prepare, get your soups and sauces, forcemeats, 
&c. ready the day before ; many made dishes may 
also be prepared the day before they are to go to 
table, but do not do them quite enough the first 
day that they may not be overdone by warming 
up again. 

Prepare every thing you can the day before the 
dinner, and order every thing else to be sent in 
early in the morning; if the tradesmen forget it, it 
will allow you time to send for it. 

The pastry, jellies, &c. you may prepare while 
the broths are doing; then truss your game and 
poultry, and shape your collops, cutlets, &c. No- 



i 



152 ADVICE TO COOKS. 

thing should go to table but what has indisputable 
pretensions to be eaten ! 

Put jour made dishes in plates, and arrange 
them upon the dresser in regular order; next see 
that your roasts and boils are all nicely trimmed, 
trussed, &c. and quite ready for the spit or the pot. 

Have your vegetables neatly cut, pared, picked 
and clean washed in the cullender: provide a tin 
dish with partitions, to hold your fine herbs ; on- 
ions and shallots, parsley, thyme, terragon, cher- 
vil, and burnet, minced very fine, and lemon peel 
grated, or cut thin, and chopped very small; pep- 
per and salt ready mixed, and your spice-box and 
salt-cellar always ready for action, that every thing 
you want may be at hand for your stove-work, 
and not be scampering about the kitchen in a 
whirlpool of confusion, hunting after these trifles, 
while the dinner is waiting. 

Nothing can be done in perfection, that must be 
done in a hurry; therefore, if you wish the dinner 
to be sent up to please your master and mistress, 
and do credit to yourself, set a high value on your 
character for punctuality : this shows the establish- 
ment is orderlj'^, is extremely gratifying to the mas- 
ter and his guests, and is most praise-worthy in the 
attendants. 

But, remember, you cannot obtain this desira- 
ble reputation, without good management in every 
respect; if you wish to insure ease and indepen- 
dence in the latter part of your life, you must not 
be unwilling to pay the price for which only they 
can be obtained, and earn them by a diligent and 
faithful performance of the duties of your station 
in 3^our young days, which, if you steadily perse- 
vere in, you may depend upon ultimately receiv- 
ing the reward your services deserve. 



ADVICE TO COOKS. 



153 



All duties are reciprocal ; and if you hope to 
receive favour, endeavour lo deserve it by show- 
ing yourself fond of obliging, and grateful when 
obliged ; such behaviour will win regard and main- 
tain it, enforce what is right, and excuse what is 
wrong. 

Quiet steady perseverance is the only sure 
spring which you can safely depend upon to infal- 
libly promote your progress on the road to inde- 
pendence. 

If your employers do not immediately appear to 
be sensible of your endeavours to contribute your 
utmost to their comfort and interest, be not easily 
discouraged; persevere and do all in your power 
lo make yourself useful.* 

Endeavour to promote the comfort of every in- 
dividual in the family, let it be manifest that you 
are desirous to do rather more, than what is requir- 
ed of you, than less than your duty: they merit 
little who perform merely what would be exacted ; 
if you are desired to help in any business which 
may not strictly belong to your department, under- 
take it cheerfully, patiently, and conscientiously. 

O^The preceding remarks and advice to cooks, 
are extracted from the Cook's Oracle, a work 
which should be oftener in the hands of every 
Cook, but which I have seldom seen. 

* N.B. If you will take half the pains to deserve the regard of your 
master, by being a good and faithful servant, you take to be consider- 
ed a good fellow-servant, so many of you would not, in the decline of 
life, be left destitute of tliose comforts which age requires, nor have 
occasion to quote the saying that. ' service is no inheritance,' unless 
your own misconduct makes it so. 

' The idea of being called a tell-tale has occasioned many good ser- 
vants to shut their eyes against the frauds of fellow-servants. In the 
eye of the law, persons standing by and seeing a felony committed, 
which they could have prevented, are both equally guilty with those 
committing it." 

14 



154 



A WORD TO HEADS OF FAMILIES. 

It will be evident to you, my respected employ- 
ers, that the foregoing observations are thrown to- 
gether in a very crude and imperfect manner. 
The writer has no pretensions as a scholar, but 
considerable experience as a servant, and it was 
his wish, however poorly he may have succeeded 
in the attempt, to convey the result of that expe- 
rience to his fellow servants for their instruction 
and guidance. If he has succeeded in the slight- 
est degree, he humbly thinks it will be more read- 
ily received and read by servants, for whom it was 
exclusively intended, than if written in highflown 
terms, or by one among yourselves. You, my 
respected masters and mistresses, will reap the 
principal advantage of the diffusion of a knowl- 
edge of their duties among servants, whose ig- 
norance is sometimes very troublesome. The 
writer, however, has farther endeavoured, in all 
cases, to enforce upon the minds of servants, in 
stating rules and duties, that 'might is right;' that 
these rules are subject lo modification and varia- 
tion at your will and pleasure. ' The servant is 
not greater than his master,' neither are any rules 
or regulations; 'new masters, new laws,' and 
every servant must conform lo those of the family 
where he takes up his residence, without demur 
or hesitation. 

On the other hand, a few words might be said to 
masters and mistresses, in behalf of those who are 
dependent on them for their present, and often- 
times for their eternal good. ' The labourer is 
worthy of his hire,' and should be treated, in health 



155 

or in sickness, with pity and feeling ; if it is neces- 
sary to place servants under strict surveillance, 
at least they shoud be treated as fellow beings and 
candidates for a future world. It would, however, 
be presumption in me, a servant, to urge aught on 
this subject to my superiors, 1 beg leave therefore 
respectfully to conclude with the following extract 
in behalf of the cook and other servants, taken 
from the said Oracle : — 

" A good dinner is one of the greatest enjoyments 
of human life ; and as the practice of cookery is 
attended with so many discouraging difficulies, so 
many disgusting and disagreeable circumstances 
and even dangers, we ought to have some regard 
for those who encounter them, to procure us pleas- 
ure, and to reward their attention, by rendering 
their situation every way as comfortable and 
agreeable as we can. Mere money is a very inad- 
equate compensation to a complete cook ; he who 
has preached integrity to those in the kitchen may 
be permited to recommend liberality to those in 
the parlour; they are indeed the scources of each 
other. 

Depend upon it, ' true self-love and social, are 
the same;' 'do as you would be done by;' give 
those you are obliged to trust, every inducement 
to be honest, and no temptation to play tricks. 

When you consider that a good servant eats no 
more than a bad one, how much more waste is 
occasioned by provisions being dressed in a slov- 
enly and unskilful manner, and how much a good 
cook (to whom the conduct of the kitchen is con- 
fided) can save you by careful management, no 
housekeeper will hardly deem it an unwise specu- 
lation, it is certainly an amiable experiment, to in- 



156 

vite the honesty end industry of domestics, by set- 
ting them an example of liberality; at least, show 
them, that ' according to their pains, will be their 
gains.' But trust not your servants with the se- 
cret of their own strength ; importance of any 
kind, being what human frailty is least able to bear. 

Avoid all approaches towards familiarity, which 
to a proverb is accompanied by contempt, and 
soon breaks the neck of obedience. 

Servants are more likely to be praised into 
good conduct, than scolded out of bad ; always 
commend them w hen they do right ; to cherish the 
desire of pleasing in them, you must show them 
that you are pleased : — 

' Be to their faults a little blind, 
And to their virtues very kind.' 

By such conduct, ordinary servants will often be 
converted into good ones ; few are so hardened as 
not to feel gratified when ihey are kindly and lib- 
erally treated. 

It is a good maxim to select servants not young- 
er than thirty; before that age, however comfort- 
able you may endeavour to make them, their 
•want of experience, and the hope of something 
still better, prevents their being satisfied with their 
present state. After they have had the benefit of 
experience, if they are tolerably comfortable, they 
will endeavour to deserve the smiles of even a 
moderately kind master, for fear they may change 
for the worse. 

Life may indeed be very fairly divided into the 
seasons of hope and fear. In youth, we hope eve- 
ry thing may be right ; in age we fear every 
thing will be wrong. 



157 

Do not discharge a good servant for a slight 
offence — 

' Bear and forbear, thus preached the stoic sages, 
And iu two words include the sense of pages.' — Pope. 

Human nature is the same in all stations ; if you 
can convince your servants, that you have a gene- 
rous and considerate regard for their health and 
comfort, why should you imagine that they will be 
insensible to the good they receive? 

Impose no commands but what are reasonable, 
nor reprove but with justice and temper ; the best 
way to ensure which, is never to lecture them, 
till at least one day after they have oifended you. 

If they have any particular hardships to endure 
in your service, let them see that you are con- 
cerned for the necessity of imposing it. 

If they are sick, remember you are their patron 
as well as their master •, not only remit their la- 
bour, but give them all the assistance of food, phy- 
sic, and every comfort in your power. Tender 
assiduity about an invalid is half a cure, it is a 
balsam to the mind, which has a most powerful 
effect on the body, soothes the sharpest pains, and 
strengthens beyond the richest cordial. 

Ye, who think that to protect and encourage 
virtue, is the best preventative from vice, give 
your female servants liberal wages. 

' Charity should begin at home,' — ' prevention 
is preferable to cure,' but I have no objection to 
see your names ornamenting the list of subscrib- 
ers to foundling hospitals, and female peniten- 
tiaries. 

To say nothing of the deleterious vapours and 
pestilential exhalations of the charcoal, which 
soon undermine the health of the heartiest, the 
14* 



158 

glare of a scorching fire and the smoke so bane- 
ful to the eves and the complexion, are continual 
and inevitable dangers ; and a cook must live in 
the midst of them, as a soldier on the field of bat- 
tle, surrounded bj bullets, and bombs, and Con- 
greve's rockets, with this only difference, that for 
the first, every day is a fighting day, that her war-, 
fare is almost always without glory, and most 
praiseworthy achievements pass not only without 
reward, but frequently without even thanks; for 
the most consummate cook is, alas ! seldom no- 
ticed by the master, or heard of by the guests; 
who, while they are eagerly devouring his turtle, 
and drinking his wine, care very little who dressed 
the one, or sent the other. 

The greatest care should be taken by the man 
of fashion, that his cook's health be preserved. 

Cleanliness, and a proper ventilation to carry 
off smoke and steam, should be particularly at- 
tended to in the construction of a kitchen ; the 
grand scene of action, the fire-place, should be 
placed where it may receive plenty of light. 
Hitherto the contrary has prevailed, and the poor 
cook is continually basted with her own perspira- 
tion. 

It is almost impossible for a cook to attend to 
the business of the kitchen with any certainty of 
perfection if employed in other household con- 
cerns. It is a service of such importance, and so 
difficult to perform even tolerably well, that it is 
sufficient to engross the entire attention of one 
person. 

This is a maxim "which is neither understood 
nor admitted in some families, where the cook is 
expected to be a house servant also, and coals are 
meted out to her by the quart, and butter by the 
ounce, &c. 



159 

If the master and mistress of a family will some- 
times condescend to make an amusement of this 
art, they will escape a number of disappointments, 
&c. which those who will not, must suffer, to the 
detriment of both their health and their fortune." 



DIRECTIONS HOW TO MAKE A FIRE OF 
LEHIGH COAL. 

And now, Joseph and David, I must address a 
few ' last words' to you on the subject of making 
coalf^-es. Having put down all that need be said 
in respect to employers and servants in their con- 
duct towards each other, I wish to add some very 
superior directions for making fires of what is 
called anthracite coal, otherwise called Lehigh, 
Rhode Island, or any hard coal. 

Very few servants at first understand the method 
of kindling and continuing a fire of Lehigh coal, 
many will never learn, and many more from errone- 
ous instructions, whilst they think they understand 
it, make but a bungling piece of work of it. 1 had 
prepared some observations on this subject to be 
inserted among the directions and receipts, but 
have omitted them in order to give room to the 
following full account and directions, and as our 
book is intended to be useful to servants, it must 
be granted that a knowledge how to make a Le- 
high coal fire, when it is becoming so common in 
this country, is quite an acquisition. 

I wish my fellow servants to read the rules very 
attentively. They are very humorous, but very 
true, and they lay down a plain and easy method 



i 



160 

for preparing and burning this kind of coal. These 
rules were first published in the 'New York Amer- 
ican,' — and people thought them a burlesque upon 
the use of this kind of fuel, but experience has 
made them acknowledge that they are most excel- 
lent and true, and hundreds have enjoyed the 
comforts of a hard coal fire made according to the 
writer's directions. 

CHAPTER I. OF BUYING AND BREAKING.* 

1. Buy from the vessel, if possible ; for a chal- 
dron there is more than at the yard. And remem- 
ber that every seller of coal is a cheat. 

2. Stand by and see that large pieces only are 
put into the cart, for a cart of very large pieces, 
when broken up, makes a cart and a quarter of 
small ones. 

3. Refuse a load that appears to contain dust, 
because Lehigh dust is clear waste, and enough in 
all conscience is made in the breaking. 

4. Break the coal before housing it, unless 3'-ou 
would have to break it yourself at the risk of ei- 
ther eye. 

5. Do not be hoaxed out of a dollar for a ham- 
mer made expressly for the purpose of breaking 
Lehigh, the family axe is just as good. 

6. Do not take a man from the yard with his 
patent hammer, to break your coal for you, unless 
you would pay twice what the job is worth, and 
what a dozen, in less than five minutes after th^ 
coal is dumped, will offer to do it for. 

7. In breaking, see that each piece is broken by 
itself on the pavement, and not as is usual, on the 

* This coal is sold by weight in Boston; and broken up at the yard, 
at an extra charge of fifty cents per ton. 



161 

mass, unless you wish to burn half the coal as 
powder. 

8. Make the man who breaks carry in as fast 
as he breaks, whereby much dust will be saved. 

9. Let the pieces into which it is broken be 
about as large as your fist, if your hand is rather a 
small one ; otherwise, about the size of your 
wife's, provided her hand is something larger than 
common ; or, about the size of a half-pint tumbler. 

10. Watch the fellow who breaks, or he will 
not break half small enough — or he will break it 
on the mass — or he will use a bushel up as mis- 
siles against the boys, cows or pigs — or he will 
take Mi-e to wet it all in the gutter before he 
takes Wu p. 

11. When the coal is in, proceed to the mystery 
of burning, which deserves a separate chapter. 
This subject however is better handled under 
the two heads, of kindling, and of replenishing 
and perpetuating. 

CHAPTER II. — OF THE KINDLING. 

1. This is a great mystery, therefore proceed 
with caution and with a mind divested of all pre- 
judice. 

2. Let the grate be perfectly cleared of all for- 
eign substances, and begin the fire at the bottom. 

3. The best material for kindling is charcoal, 
unless perhaps dry hickory be preferred ; the lat- 
ter is much cheaper — not absolutely however, that 
I know of, but it is relatively. For, in relation to 
the cook, it may be affirmed that half the charcoal 
which you by for kindling will go into the kitchen 
fire to save trouble. The cheapest method is 
this : buy a load of dry hickory, stipulate that it 



162 

shall be large, have it sawed three times — the 
wood will now be in junks, which you may defy 
the cook to burn — split it up as fast as wanted and 
no faster. Some say that Liverpool is the cheap- 
est kindler. It inay be at six dollars a chaldron, 
but it is not at sixteen dollars: and then you 
must have wood to kindle the Liverpool. 

4. Having got the kindling, proceed to the 
grate. Throw into it first live coals from the 
kitchen, then lay on the charcoal or hickory, be 
not too sparing, — then place loosely, and with the 
fingers, fair pieces of Schuylkill, Lehigh, or Rhode 
Island of the orthodox size. I advise the use of 
the fingers, because the work is done quickejrthan 
with, the tongs, from which the smooth Schi^lkill 
perpetually slips. Let the coal be piled as -high 
as the grate will allow. 

6. If you are in a hurry, put up the blower; if 
not, do not use it, for the hard coal kindles much 
better without forcing. The blower makes a 
quicker fire, but a worse one, for the outside of 
the coals is burned before the inside is even heat- 
ed. When the blower is removed, the heat sud- 
denly subsides; the coals (Lehigh especially) are 
found encrusted with a while coating of hard ash- 
es, which renders them almost incombustible, and 
the fire afterwards becomes very dull. 

6. If the process of kindling fails, begin all over 
again. Failure most frequently proceeds from 
stinginess in the material of kindling. Better be 
prodigal of it than have the fire go out, and the 
grate all disembowelled a second time. Horresco 
referens. 

7. The fire now being well kindled but this 

is the subject of another chapter. 



163 



CHAPJER in. or REPLENISHING AND PERPET- 
UATING. 

1. The fire being now well under way, it will 
need to be fed but three times during the day and 
evening. The first replenishing should take place 
iaimediately after breakfast, when the family 
breaks up, the gentlemen retreating to the count- 
ing-room, office, or study, and the ladies to their 
dressing-rooms ; the second, about an hour before 
dinner ; the third, a little into the evening. 

2. If my readers are willing to be truly econo- 
mical, let them replenish a fourth time, viz. at 
going to bed — which I call the perpetuating process. 
Since, if it be done properly^ the fire need be kin- 
dled but once for the whole winter, say on the 1st 
day of November, and thus an immense amount of 
kindling matter may be saved. 

3. The method of perpetuating is exceedingly 
simple, and consists merely in adding a few pieces 
of coal at 11 o'clock say, and then covering the 
whole with cinders and ashes, usque satictatura — 
i. e. till you have shovelled up as much as the grate 
can bear. In the morning ail you have to do, is 
to clap on the blower, and presto, the fire before 
you is red hot. Following this plan, my parlour 
has always been comfortable at breakfast. 

4. Let not the ladies murmur: the grate can 
still be cleaned. When the servant first approach- 
es the grate in the morning, every thing is calm, 
quiet, slumbering and cool— you would hardly be- 
lieve the fire to be there : and the brass can there- 
fore be polished without the least hindrance. And 
not till that is done should the blower be applied. 



164 

CHAPTER IV. — OP THE POKER. 

1. A judicious use of the poker is essential to 
the well-being of an anthracite fire. This is the 
most delicate part of the science of coal burning, 
and the strictest attention should be given to it. 
So nice a matter is this, that 1 am almost ready tp 
say, that I can form my opinion of a man's intel- 
lect from his application of the poker as well as 
his pleading, preaching, or physicking. 

2. An ignorant, meddlesome, or nervous person 
you will often see thrusting in the poker at all ad- 
ventures, without rhyme or reason — as often mar- 
ring as making the fire. In a cold winter day 
particularly, the poker should always be kept out 
of their reach. They are unworthy its honors. 

3. llie legitimate office of the poker, in the 
case of a hard coal fire, is to clear away the ashes 
■which accumulate on the lower bars, and promote 
a free circulation of air. Not to quicken the blaze 
by brealiing a large coal in pieces, or by changing 
the position of pieces, as in fires of Liverpool coal. 

4. A fire should be poked when at its zenith — if 
you wait till it is much below that, your poking 
will only poke it out ; the more you poke the less 
it will burn. 

5. If the fire, from having been too long neglec- 
ted, appear to be in a doubtful state, hesitating 
between life and death — never touch a poker to it, 
it will be the death of it — never stir it — scarce 
look or breathe upon it, but with the step of a 
ghost, clap on the blower, and if the vital spark be 
not wholly extinct, the air will find it out, and in a 
few moments blow it up to a generous heat — then 
gradually add fresh coal in small clean pieces, de- 



165 

void of dust, and j'our fire is safe. — Servants never 
learn this mystery, the}' always fly to the poker in 
every case of distress, and by their stupid use of it, 
double their own labour and vex the mistress of the 
bouse. 

6. This direction should be particularly observ- 
ed in the morning, when a fire has been perpetu- 
ated. No coal should be added, nor the fire touched 
till after the blower has been up and done its 
work. It will ofien be found, especially in the 
case of the Schuylkill coal, far preferable to Le- 
high— that this alone will furnish a sufficient heat 
for the breakfast hour ; which is a demonstration 
that it is no waste, but a clear saving, to perpetu- 
ate the fire in the manner laid down. 

7. Many more niceties might be enumerated 
touching the poker; but I refrain and willingly 
leave something to the imagination of the reader. 
I conclude, as the preachers say, with only 
one practical remark — that you will never have a 
good anthracite fire, till you have broken your hus- 
band, brother, or wife, of the mischievous habit 
of poking. It is surely an unseemly habit in itself, 
as well as an injurious one to the fire. It shows 
too a mcddleson:c, prying, insinuating disposition; 
and I can never help thinking, when I see one of 
this sort poking the coals, that he only wants the 
opportunity to thrust himself into my private affairs. 

CHAPTER V. CONTAINING MISCELLANIES. 

1. If the savings bank is a good thing in Wall- 
street, it is a belter thing in our own houses. If 
we save at home, we need not put our money 
there, we shall be rich enough without money at 
interest. We waste in nothing more than the use 
15 



166 

of hard coal. The cinders which I see every day 
lying in the streets, nay before my own door, 
would, if gathered up, afford fuel to many a poor 
family; yet I confess that I do not see how the 
evil is to be remedied. The cinders get so min- 
gled with the ashes, that it is difficult to separate 
them, and the servants will not do it. But till a 
way is discovered of saving them, a Schuylkill may 
be a clean and hot fire, but it will not be a cheap 
one. Of Liverpool coal you can burn every atom. 

2. The blower should questionless be the size - 
of the whole grate ; but it should be used with 
discretion. 

3. As to the form of grates, I think on the 
whole, that the Lehigh grate with horizontal front 
bars, and. rake ones for the bottom, possesses the 
greatest advantages. — There is the greatest objec- 
tion to one of the common Liverpool constructions, 
which is that the floor of it, the bottom bars, are 
altogether too thickly set. The ashes cannot fall 
through, but collect upon, then deaden, and finally 
extinguish the fire, while the coal is not half con- 
sumed. In order to keep the fire a-going at all, 
there must be a very frequent clearing away of 
the ashes with the poker. A practice to be dep- 
recated, as it tends to generate the worst habits. 

I had sketched the heads of a couple of chap- 
ters on the merits of anthracite in general, and on 
the relative excellencies of Lehigh, Schuylkill, 
and Rhode Island, but I must defer them to some 
other time, and in the meanwhile I commend my 
readers to the kind care of a spirit-stirring Schuyl- 



167 



CHAPTER VI. — OF THE THREE COALS aJJD THEIR 
ADVANTAGES OVER LIVERPOOL. 

1. As to the general merits of hard coal over 
Liverpool or any other bilumenous coal — I place 
cleanliness at the very top of its virtues, — 
cleanliness as to smoke, dust, or smell. Were 
they at the same price, and of the same endur- 
ance, I should take without hesitation the hard 
coal, it is so infinitely cleaner. Burn Liverpool, 
and your clothes are smutted. — your flesh begrim- 
med— your furniture dirtied — your walls blackened, 
and wherever there happens to be a crack, seam- 
ed with long tapering streaks of soot — your carpets 
soiled, and when taken up, if there are cracks in 
your floor, are found indelibly stained with cor- 
responding lines of smut, to such a degree that 
you are defeated in your economical purpose of 
wearing them next year the wrong side up. I say 
nothing of the filthy smut that deposites itself on 
your books and papers — of the unnumbered cob- 
webs brought to light by the smoke and dust gath- 
er ;g on them, which might else have hung undis- 
cerned for months or years — of those globules of 
pure greasy black in the shape oi polly-wogs that 
go sailing round the room, and light on your shirt 
collar or cheek, where they are unwillingly rub- 
bed in, while you, like Malvolio, cross-gartered, 
parade yourself in the streets, and wonder to see 
every one smile as he passes. And then, the 
stench of this vile coal, when^a strong north- 
wester, or whatever the wind is that nauseates 
the throat of your chimney, blows the smoke in 
Stygian puffs into your parlour and face — boh! 
suicide might be traced to it. 



168 

But burn anthracite, and the whole scene is 
changed. Whitewash your parlours in the spring 
or autumn, and the white is just as fresh and pure 
at the end of a long winter as at first. After three 
months fire in my parlour, I have been unable to 
perceive the slightest dinginess in the walls, ceil- 
ing, or cornice. — A matter of the greatest conse- 
quence in those houses where the cornice has its 
oak leaves, rosettes, dentals, and nobody knows 
what more, of architectural ginger-bread work. 
For, by frequent white-washings, though done with 
ever so much care, and with the nicest Paris white, 
the fine sharp edges, graceful curves, and delicate 
cavities on which the beauty of the cornice wholly 
depends, are lost, being cased over or filled up by 
the muddy brush of the black white-washer. The 
dust too, which hard coal makes, though light and 
fine, is clean and pure, and easily dislodged from 
the mantle piece and furniture, without leaving the 
least trace of its presence. Its visibilil3% wherev- 
er it does light, serves also to keep the lady of the 
house on the alert, and the dusting-cloth in more 
frequent action. And as to smell, it has infinitely 
the preference over the bitumenous coals. It sa- 
vours of sulphur to be sure, and the associations 
are by no means agreeable: but so do the Con- 
gress waters smell of sulphur, and taste too, yet we 
travel 500 or 1000 miles to enjoy it. JBut the 
smell, however, cannot be denied to be a pure, 
wholesome, medical one, though perhaps now and 
then a little too strong, especially from the Schuyl- 
kill. The Rhode Island is remarkable for being 
wholly innocent of the fumes that proceed both 
from Lehigh and Schuylkill. A great merit surely. 

2. As to durability. All kinds of hard coal 
stand the heat remarkably well. But I confess 



169 

they do not stand it so well as I could wish. They 
do burn out. The best will consume away after 
a while. The truth is, that though a fire of An- 
thracite will, to be sure, last longer than one of 
Liverpool, yet a chaldron of anthracite will not 
last a whit longer than a chaldron of Liverpool. 
And the reason is, that while a peck of Liverpool 
makes as good a fire as is ordinarily wanted in the 
coldest weather, it takes a bushel of Anthracite. 
If a hard coal fire therefore lasts longer, it ought 
to, in all conscience, for it is four times as big. I 
state the case in round terms, but 1 am persuaded 
that they represent the truth very nearly : yet, if 
there is no great cheapness, there is great comfort 
in a hard coal fire, in its steadiness, constancy, and 
trust-worthiness. Like a man of integrity and 
consistency, you always know where to find it. ]t 
plays you no tricks, but maintains the same sober, 
equal demeanour. When you go out, if you just 
cast a look at the grate, provided you have studied 
the subject properly, you know just how long you 
can he gone and find a good fire when 3'ou return. 
You can tell with great exactness whether it will 
stand 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 hours longer, But a Liver- 
pool fire deceives you perpetually. Yow left per- 
haps a good fire and ample coal on, to last till you 
should get back; but when you enter your par- 
lour, shivering with cold, all is black — the fire has 
either gone out, leaving the half-burnt coal all 
bridged over the grate ; or, having found a vent 
through the superincum!)ent mass, the draught thus 
created has whistled it all away, in a manner alto- 
gether rapid, costly and provoking. 

3. As to the Heat. — With a right furious draught, 
in a grate properly constructed, 1 believe that the 
hard coal in an equal quantity would yield a fiercer 
15* 



170 

heat than Liverpool. But in a sluggish grate, 
where the hard coal burns slowly, it is with much 
ado that a small room can be kept warm with it, 
■while Liverpool frequently renewed and judicious- 
ly poked, would, drive you out of it. Take an 
equal weight of each and subject each to the high- 
est draught, and I have no doubt that the anthra- 
cite would yield vastly more heat — more intense 
and for a longer period than Liverpool. It is said 
that the Rhode Island makes a hotter fire than ei- 
ther of the others, and from a short trial I am in- 
clined to believe that it is true. It certainly 
makes more flame— much more — as the trial of it 
at M'Queen's furnace proved, and as my own ex- 
perience has proved also. A fire of Rhode Island 
is, too, more beautiful than one of Lehigh or 
Schuylkill. The flame is indeed exceedingly beau- 
tiful. You see all sorts of colours issuing from the 
lop of the fire and blending together ; rose, pink, 
purple, violet, red and blue, now separate and dis- 
tinct, and now weaving together. What it is that 
occasions this I know not. It may be the same 
mysterious cause that produces in Newport and 
the neighbourhood of the mines the most beautiful 
women. Every one knows that a Newport lady 
and beauty are almost convertible terms. It is a 
singular coincidence too, and well worth noticing, 
that, as the external of Rhode Island coal is ex- 
ceedingly unprepossessing while the flame is so 
beautiful, so nothing can be more dismal than the 
outward aspect of Newport, though so much beau- 
ty lies hidden beneath. Philosophers might per- 
haps speculate profitably on these analogies. 

4. But I begin to prose. Old age, however, 
must be allowed its privileges. 



171 



CHAPTER Vn. — THE HARD COALS BRIEFLY CON- 
TRASTED. 

I do not intend saying much on this part of my 
subject, because of Rhode Island I know but little, 
and there is not after all, perhaps, much to be 
said. Besides, it will be construed into a piece of 
sheer prejudice and ill-nature by the wives of 
stockholders, if I should exalt one coal to the inju- 
ry of that in which their husbands hold stock. To 
avoid an evil like this I shall say but a word, and 
leave the subject. I am afraid, however, that I 
shall certainly bring the wrath of many down upon 
my head by what little I do say — for in one word I 
do think the Schuylkill is the best of the three, 
and for this reason, that it burns the easiest. Who 
says it does not, I freely say does not know where- 
of he affirms, or he is prejudiced, while I aver that 
I am free of all prejudice. 

The Lehigh, under similar circumstances of 
draught, will grow dull and go out, while the 
Schuylkill would have burned freely. 

The Schuylkill burns itself up much more per- 
fectly than Lehigh, which will oftentimes go out, 
leaving the grate half full of half burnt coal. 

In perpetuating the fire, the pre-eminence of 
Schuylkill is particularly observable, it keeps fire 
through the night much better than Lehigh. 

In breaking, Schuylkill breaks hard, Lehigh 
harder, Rhode Island least hard. Comparing 
them with strict grammatical precision, Rhode 
Island is hard, Schuylkill harder, Lehigh hardest, 
both to break and burn. 

As to price, Schuylkill and Lehigh are cheap, 
comparative wanting, Rhode Island cheapest- 



172 

In respect of beauty of fracture, that of Lehigh 
is clean and smooth, that of Schujlkill exceedingly 
brilliant, of Rhode Island hideously ugly. 

As to combustion, that of Rhode Island is the 
most complete, and the residue the least. 

In regard to ashes and dirt, they are about alike : 
Lehigh ashes being whitest, Schuylkill darker, and 
Rhode Island darker still. Lehigh perhaps makes 
the least ashes, though it leaves the most of a hard 
incombustible cinder. And Rhode Island perhaps 
makes the most ashes, while as far as I have dis- 
cerned, it leaves nothing unburnt. 

Many other slight -comparisons suggest them- 
selves, but they would be even less to the purpose 
than those I have already indulged in. 

It has been hardly fair, perhaps, to our neigh- 
bour of Rhode Island to bring her into the lists, as 
we have not probably had a fair specimen of it yet 
in the market. What we have had, it is well 
known was water-soaked, by no means in a fit state 
for the grate. But there is every reason to be- 
lieve that when the mines have been somewhat 
further opened, and the coal has been properly 
exposed in the drying house, it will burn with even 
more facility than the Schuylkill. From the assu- 
rances of one who has burned it in this perfectly 
dry slate, it cannot be doubted ; and on his assu- 
rances, one of the above comparisons is grounded. 
If, therefore, it shall the next year be offered at 
six or seven dollars the chaldron, we may at length 
be in possession of a cheap as well as good fuel. 

I tear myself, Messrs. Editors, reluctantly from 
this dirk but delightful theme. If I thought you 
would print more 1 would write more, but your 
patience must be exhausted.' 

1 will only say, in conclusion, that could I utter 



173 



myself in the language of our first poet, now hap- 
pily a citizen of our city, I should think it no pro- 
fanation of my powers to employ them in singing 
the beauites of the many-coloured Schuylkill. 

AN AMATEUR. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS, 

COMPILED rOR THE USE OP HOUSE SERVANTS. 

Many well-meaning servants are ignorant of the 
best means of managing, and thereby waste as 
much as would maintain ft small family, besides 
causing the mistress of the house much ciiagrin by 
their irregularity : and many families, from a want 
of method, have the appearance of chance rather 
than of regular system. To avoid this, the follow- 
ing hints may be useful as well as economical : — 

iEvery article should be kept in that place best 
suited to it, as much waste may thereby be avoid- 
ed, vi2. 

Vegetables will keep best on a stone floor, if the 
air be excluded, — Meat in a cold dry place. — Su- 
gar and sweetmeats require a dry place; so does 
salt. — Candles cold, but not damp. — Dried meats, 
hams, &c. the same. — All sorts of seeds for pud- 
dings, saloop, rice, &;c. should be close covered, 
to preserve from insects ; but that will not pre-- 
vent it, if long kept. 

Bread is so heavy an article of expence, that all 
waste should be guarded against; and having it 
cut in the room will tend much to prevent it. It 
should not be cut until a day old. Earthen pans 
»nd covers keep it best, 



174 

Straw, to lay apples on, should be quite dry, to 
prevent musty taste. 

Large pears should be tied up by the stalk. 

Basil, savoury, or knotted marjoram, or thyme, 
to be used when herbs are ordered ; but with 
discretion, as they are very pungent. 

The best means to preserve blankets from moths 
is to fold and lay them under the feather-beds that 
are in use ; and they should be shaken occasion- 
ally. When soiled, they should be washed, not 
scoured. 

Soda, by softening the water, saves a great deal 
of soap. Jt should be melted in a large jug of 
water, some of which pour into the tubs and boil- 
er ; and when the latter becomes weak, add more. 
The new iniprovement in soft soap is, if properly 
used, a saving of near half in quantity ; and though 
sometimes dearer than the hard, reduces the price 
of washing considerably. 

Many good laundresses advise soaping linen in 
warm water the night previous to washing, as facil- 
itating the operation with less friction. 

Sonp should be cut with a wire or twine, in pie- 
ces that will make a long square when first brought 
in, and kept out of the air two or three weeks ; 
for if it dry quick, it will crack, and when wet, 
break. Put it on a shelf, leaving a space be- 
tween, and let it grow hard gradually. Thus, it 
will save a full third in the consumption. 

Some of the lemons and oranges used for juice 
should be pared first, to preserve the peel dry; 
some should be halved, and when squeezed,- the 
pulp cut out, and the outsides dried for grating. 
If for boiling in any liquid, the first way is best. 
When these fruits are cheap, a proper quantity 
should be bought and prepared as above directed, 



175 

especially by those who live in the country, where 
ihey cannot always be had; and they are perpet- 
ually wanted in cookery. 

When whiles of eggs are used for jelly, or other 
purposes, contrive to have pudding, custard, &,c^ 
to employ the yolks also. Should you not want 
them for several hours, beat them up with a little 
water, and put them in a cool place, or they will 
be hardened and useless. It was a mistake of old, 
to think that the whites made cakes and puddings 
heavy ; on the contrary, if beaten long and sepa- 
rately, they contribute greatly to give lightness, 
are an advantage to paste, and make a pretty dish, 
beaten with fruit, to set in cream, &:c. 

If copper utensils be used in the kitchen, the 
cook should be charged to be very careful not to 
let the tin be rubbed off, and to have them fresh 
done when the least defect appears, and never to 
put by any soup, gravy, &ic. in them, or any metal 
utensil ; stone and earthen vessels should be pro- 
vided for those purposes, as likewise plenty of 
common dishes, that the table-set may not be used 
to put by cold meat. 

Tin vessels, if kept damp, soon rust, which 
causes holes. Fenders and tin linings of flower- 
pots, &c. should be painted every year or two. 

Vegetables soon sour, and corrode metals and 
glazed red ware, by which a strong poison is pro- 
duced. Some years ago, the death of several gen- 
tlemen was occasioned at Salt hill, (London,) by 
the cook sending a ragout to the table, which she 
had kept fi-om the preceding day in a copper ves- 
sel badly tinned. 

Vinegar, by its acidity, does the same, the glaz- 
ing being of lead or arsenic. 

To cool liquors in hot weather, dip a cloth in 



176 

cold water, and wrap it round the bottle two or 
three times, then place it in the sun : renew the 
process once or twice. 

The best way of scalding fruits, or boiling vine- 
gar, is in a stone jar on a hot iron hearth ; or by 
putting the vessel into a saucepan of water, called 
a water-bath. 

If chocolate, coffee, jelly, gruel, bark, &c. be 
suffered to boil over, the strength is lost. 

The cook should be charged to take care of 
jelly-bags, tapes for the collared things, &:c. which, 
if not perfectly scalded, and kept dry, give an un- 
pleasant flavour when next used. 

Cold water thrown on cast-iron, when hot, will 
cause it to crack. 

A cook must be quick and strong of sight: her 
hearing most acute, that she may be sensible when 
the contents of her vessels bubble, although they 
be closely covered, and that she maybe alarmed 
before the pot boils over: her auditory nerve 
ought to discriminate (when several saucepans are 
in operation at the same time) the simmering of 
one, the ebullition of another, and the full-toned 
warbling of a third. 

It is imperiously requisite that her organ of smell 
be highly susceptible of the various effluvia, that 
her nose may distinguish the perfection of aromatic 
ingredients, and that in animal substances it shall 
evince a suspicious accuracy between tenderness 
and putrefaction; above all, her olfactories should 
be tremblingly alive to mustiness and empyreuma. 

It is from the exquisite sensibility of her palate, 
that we admire and judge of the cook ; from the 
alliance between the olfactory and sapid organs 
it will be seen, that their perfection is indispen- 
sable. 



177 

Good manners have often made the fortune of 
many, who have had nothing else to recommend 
them : ill manners have as often marred the hopes 
of those who have had every thing else to advance 
them. 

Dinner tables are seldom sufficiently lighted, or 
attended ; an active waiter will have enough to 
do, to attend upon half a dozen good eaters : there 
should be half as many candles as there are guests, 
and their flame be about eighteen inches above 
the table ; our foolish modern candelabras seem in- 
tended to illuminate the ceiling, rather than to 
give light- on the plates, &c. • 

I am persuaded that no servant ever saved his 
master sixpence, but he found it in the end in his 
own pocket. — Cook''s Ora. 

A surgeon may as well attempt to make an in- 
cision with a pair of sheers, or open a vein with 
an oyster knife, as a cook pretend to dress a din- 
ner without proper tools. — Ibid. 

When the pot is coming to a boil, there will al- 
ways, from the cleanest meat and clearest water, 
rise a scum to the top of it ; proceeding partly 
from the foulness of the meat, and partly from the 
water, this must be carefully taken off as soon as 
it rises ; on this, depends the good appearance of 
all boiled things. When you have scummed well, 
put in some cold water, which will throw up the 
rest of the scum. The oftener it is scummed, and 
the cleaner the top of the water is kept, the clean- 
er will be the meat. If let alone, it soon ])oi]s 
down and sticks to the meat; which, instead of 
looking delicately white and nice, will have that 
coarse and filthy appearance we have too oft6n to 
complain of, and the butcher and. poulterer be 
16 



178 

blamed for the carlessness of the cook in not 
skimming her pot. 

in small families, we recommend block tin 
saucepans, &c. as lightest, and safest; if proper 
care is taken of them, and they are well dried af- 
ter they are cleaned, they are by far the cheapest ; 
the purchase of a new tin saucepan being little 
more than the expense of tinning a copper one. 

Let the young cook never forget, that cleanli- 
ness is the chief cardinal virtue of the kitchen; 
the first preparation for roasting is to take care 
that the spit be properly cleaned with sand and 
vwaler, nothing else. When it has been well 
scoured with this, dry it with a clean cloth. If 
spits are wiped clean, as soon as the meat is drawn 
from them, and while they are hot, a very little 
cleaning will be required. The less the spit is 
passed through the meat the better, and before 
you spit it, joint it properly, especially necks and 
loins, that the carver may separate them easily 
and neatly, and take especial care, it be evenly 
balanced on the spit, that its motion may be regu- 
lar, and the fire operate equally on each part of it. 
A cook must be as particular to proportion her 
fire to the business she has to do, as a chemist ; the 
degree of heat most desirable for dressing the dif- 
ferent sorts of food ought to be attended to with 
the utmost precision. 

A good cook is as anxiously attentive to the 
appearance and colour of her roasts, as a court 
beauty is to her complexion at a birlh-day ball. 

Be very particular in frying, never to use any 
oil, butter, lard, or drippings, but what is quite 
clean, fresh, and free from salt. Any thing dirty^ ^^ 
spoils the look, any thing bad tasted or stale*,^^P> 
spoils the flavour, and salt prevents its browning. 



179 

There is nothing in which the difference between 
an elegant and an ordinary table is more seen, than 
in the dressing of vegetables, more especially of 
greens ;- they may be equally as fine at first, at 
one place as at another; but their look and taste 
are afterwards very difierent, entirely from the 
careless way in which they have been cooked. 

Unripe vegetables are as insipid and unwhole- 
some as unripe fruits. 

If you wish to have vegetables delicately clean, 
put on your pot, make it-boil, put a little salt in it, 
and skim it perfectly clean before you put in the 
greens, &c. which should not be put in till the wa- 
ter boils briskly ; the quicker (hey boil, the green- 
er they will be ; when the vegetables sink, they 
are generally done enough, if the water has been 
constantly boiling. Take theni up immediately, 
or they will lose their colour and goodness. Drain 
the water from them thoroughly before you send 
them to table. This branch of cookery requires 
the most vigilant attention. 

If vegetables are a minute or two too long over 
the fire, they lose all their beauty and flavour. 

Made dishes are nothing more than meat, poul- 
try, or fish, stewed very gently till they are tender, 
with a thickened sauce poured over them. 

Be careful to trim off all the skin, gristle, &,c. 
that will not be eaten, and shape handsomely and 
of even thickness, the various articles which com- 
pose your made dishes ; this is sadly neglected by 
common cooks; only stew them till they are just 
tender, and not do them to rags. Therefore, what 
you prepare the day before it is to be eaten, do 
not do quite enough the first day. 

Woollen blankets or woollen clothes of any kind 
a^ well as furs, may be preserved from moths by 



180 

sprinkling a little spirits of turpentine upon them, 
in the drawers or boxes where they are deposited 
during summer. The scent of the turpentine, on 
the woollens or furs, is immediately removed on 
their exposure to the air. Sheets of paper moist- 
ened with spirits of turpentine above or below the 
clothes, furs, &c. will have the etFect of keeping off 
moths, but not so effectually as sprinkling. 

When you open a bottle of catsup, essence of 
anchovy, &c. throw away the old cork, and stop 
it closeJy with a new cork that will fit it very tight 
Use only the best superfine velvet taper corks. 

Economy in corks is very unwise ; in order to 
save a mere trifle, in the price of the cork, you run 
the risk of losing the valuable article it is intended 
tq preserve. It is a vulgar error that a bottle 
must be well stopped, when the cork is forced 
down even with the mouth of it ; this is a sure sign 
that the cork is too small, and it should be re- 
drawn and a larger one put in. 

The papering of a room, when soiled in spots, as 
often happens, may be cleaned by a piece of 
brick loaf or biscuit, one or two days old. After 
gently rubbing till the bread is soiled, the soiled 
part of the bread should be chipped ofi", or a fresh 
piece taken ; some caution is requisite not to in- 
jure the fabric of the paper-hanging, or the figures 
on it. 



I